Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability

[CEST2019_00863] Agroforestry Innovations Networks in Europe
by Mosquera-Losada M.R., Rodríguez-Rigueiro F.J., Ferreiro-Dominquez N., Pantera A., Santiago-Freijanes J.J.

Agroforestry (AF) is a climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practice of deliberately integrating woody vegetation (trees or shrubs) with crop and/or animal systems to benefit from the resulting ecological and economic interactions. It is recognized as a proactive “negative emissions technologies” (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) 1.5SR) that can foster sustainability in the current changing climate conditions. However, there are knowledge gaps to be filled regarding agroforestry, as well as bottlenecks and challenges. These could be solved by providing greater access to research findings (either published or unpublished) and identifying and extending good practices that farmers are already implementing.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00864] Understory evolution related to organic fertilization in a silvopastoral system established under Pinus radiata D. Don. in an acidic soil
by Mosquera-Losada M.R., Rodríguez-Rigueiro F.J., Santiago-Freijanes J.J., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A. , Ferreiro-Domínguez N.

Mixed pasture establishment is considered as a key point to increase livestock production due to the higher quality it has compared with unmanaged shrubby species. They also provide a set of ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and higher biodiversity. Moreover, herbaceous pasture establishment effectively contributes to biomass production while replacing shrubs therefore reducing forest fire risk. Two of the main factors promoting the establishment of the herbaceous pasture are sowing and fertilisation. This study evaluates the understory composition evolution of a silvopastoral system established with cocksfoot and clover in an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don with four treatments that consist of no fertilization, fertilization with mineral fertilizers (500 kg of mineral 8:24:16) and fertilization with three doses of sewage sludge (160, 320 and 480 kg N ha-1), in Galicia (NW Spain). Botanical composition data were analysed through species abundance diagrams in a time window of 20 years. Results showed a clear evolution in understory composition from the initial situation. Organic fertilization was found to ease sown-mixture persistence on time as well as avoiding shrub colonisation with regard to mineral and no fertilization treatments. Nutritional and sun light high-demanding species were mostly replaced in favour of autochthonous ones after sewage sludge fertilization stopped and tree canopy intercepted light that reached the understory.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00865] Pasture biodiversity after five years of establishment of a walnut silvopastoral system fertilized with different types of sewage sludge
by Arias-Martínez D., Mosquera-Losada M.R., Rigueiro-Rodríguez A. , Ferreiro-Domínguez N.

Silvopasture is the combination of woody vegetation with forage and animal production on the same land that allows the diversification of agricultural income and productivity. In the silvopastoral systems, the fertilisation with sewage sludge could increase tree growth and pasture production at the same time that the pasture biodiversity is modified. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture biodiversity of a walnut silvopastoral system grazed by sheep and fertilized with three types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted and pelletized) and with mineral fertilisation after five years of establishment. At the beginning of the experiment all plots were sown with Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L. Nevertheless, their presence diminished over the years probably due to the shade generated by the trees, the competence with native and less demanding species and cattle trampling. Moreover, the nitrogenous fertilisation benefited the native species such as Agrostis capillaris L., Bromus hordeaceus L. and Holcus lanatus L., which are less productive and of lower quality but more frugal and nitrophile shade-tolerant species with a higher soil seed bank compared with the sown species.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00811] Impact of nitrogen fertilization on nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of indigenous Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains
by Sikora S., Abrlić J., Rajnović I. , Kajić S.

Nitrogen fixation is a beneficial microbial process that greatly contribute to sustainable agricultural production and environment protection. Soil bacteria, collectively named rhizobia, are characterized by their unique ability to induce the formation of root nodules in which they convert molecular nitrogen into a usable form for plants. Soybean plants require a large amount of nitrogen for their development and achievement of high seed yields. The use of high quality rhizobial inoculants strives to optimize nitrogen nutrition of soybean with minimal environmental impacts. Selection of the most suitable Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains is of great importance for successful soybean inoculation as well as optimal nitrogen fertilization. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of fertilization with different rates of mineral nitrogen on nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of indigenous B. japonicum strains. In the vegetation pot experiment two indigenous and one reference B. japonicum strain as well as different rates of mineral nitrogen were tested. Application of increased rates of mineral nitrogen reduced number of nodules and nodule dry weight. The highest nitrogen content was determined in plants grown without any mineral nitrogen fertilization but inoculated with indigenous B. japonicum strains.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:30 to 10:33
Flash presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00833] The Effect of Intercrop on Soil Properties of an Agroforestry System in Kea - Greece
by Pantera Α., Papadopoulos Α., Fotiadis G., Kapsalis D., Papaporfyriou P., Papaspyropoulos K.

Valonia oak is the most widespread tree species found in the Aegean island of Kea - Cyclades. It forms traditional agroforestry systems since intensive agriculture is not easily practiced in the island due to the xerothermic climate and the rough terrain with steep slopes. This system has traditionally supported the local economy by its multiple products while respecting the environment. In almost all the cases, it is found in traditional terraces which were constructed since ancient times by local farmers. Even if these systems have been threatened by abandonment and change of land use (mainly for touristic purposes), there has been an increasing interest lately motivated by the higher price gained by valonia oak acorns trade and demand for agrotouristic activities. An experimental plot was established under the framework of the AGFORWARD (FP7) research project, where two commercial pasture mixes were tested for their productive capacity under shade. Soil properties were evaluated at the end of the experiment to evaluate the effect of intercropping on the economy of certain nutrients. The importance of the environmental and economic function of this system is highlighted and suggestions are made for its preservation.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00836] The AGROF-MM ERASMUS+ Educational Project
by Papadopoulos Α., Pantera Α., Burriel C., Nouallet G., Herdon M., Tamas J., Lamaison M., Musquar C., Seeman M., Atanassova S., Grozeva N., Escural J.M., Fico F., Devernay S., Levasseur E., Lavoyer S., Balaguer F., Papanastasis V., Mantzanas K., Fotiadis G.

Agroforestry is a traditional land use system that may represent the answer to many present and future environmental problems. However, many farmers who practice agroforestry do not identity it as agroforestry nor even accept such identification. So far, there is has not been an organized training method on agroforestry apart the Agrof MM method. The Agrof MM, "Agroforesterie – Formation - Mediterannee et Montagne", was a 3-year KA-2 ERASMUS+ educational project that aimed to i. Train between 130 and 150 agricultural professionals in Europe, ii. Improve and develop the education tools to enable agroforestry training to be sustainable, and, iii. Develop a unique agroforestry qualification program in each European country. It was coordinated by AgroSup Dijon, France. Thirteen partners from ten different countries participated in the program by contributing a wide range of knowledge, experiences and ideas. Within the framework of the Agrof MM project, European stakeholders were trained based on a general format (Core content) that differentiated based on the location. The trainings contained lectures, examples and a field trip per training.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00794] Εffect of summer drought in the natural regeneration of valonia oak
by Papadopoulos A., Pantera A., Fotiadis G.

This paper presents an initial attempt to investigate the effect of drought in the mortality of valonia oak (Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis) seedlings and young saplings in a silvopastoral system in western Greece. The experiment was conducted in fenced experimental plots where the number of seedlings and young samplings was measured in May and October before and after the dry summer period for the years 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The results show that the number of seedlings and young saplings decreased on average by 24.7% in October attributed mainly to the effect of summer drought.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:33 to 12:36
Flash presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00722] Quantification Of Soil Properties From Hyperspectral Data For Sustainable Agriculture Using Deep Learning
by Singh S., Kasana Singara S.

The characterization of soil properties is critical for optimizing farming for sustainable agriculture. All the existing techniques for soil quantification do not take advantage of the sequential nature of Hyperspectral Data. This work focuses on proposing a Hybrid Framework that can quantitatively assess the soil properties from Hyperspectral data by extracting the essential features via Principal Component Analysis and Locality Preserving Projections. The extracted features are combined to form the Hybrid dataset which is then given as input to Long Short-Term Memory Networks, a deep learning-based framework which is typically used for sequential problems. The effectiveness of the Hybrid Framework is shown by comparing it with the existing regression models.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00723] Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon for Sustainable Agriculture using Deep Learning
by Singh S., Kasana Singara S.

The organic carbon percentage is concomitant indicating the mineralization of nutrients and the ability of the soil to hold nutrients cations, structural stability, and water holding capacity. It is necessary to know the quantity of carbon for healthy soil and avoid the production related problems which can affect the sustainable agriculture model. In existing approaches, to quantitively calculate soil carbon, sample collection and in-situ laboratory testing are performed. In this work, a novel framework is proposed which is based on Partial Least Square Regression and Long Short-Term Memory networks to quantify soil organic carbon from the LUCAS dataset. Samples of LUCAS dataset are used as input to this framework. The samples are pre-processed by PLS to reduce their dimensions. These pre-processed samples are then passed to the LSTM, a Deep learning framework to build an efficient prediction model. The proposed framework performed more accurately, and its effectiveness is shown by comparing it with existing regression models.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00612] Photosynthetic response of spring oilseed rape to heat, drought, nutrient deficiency and combined stress
by Dikšaitytė A., Viršilė A., Januškaitienė I., Žaltauskaitė J.

This study aimed to determine the photosynthetic response of spring oilseed rape to heatwave (HW), drought, nutrient deficiency (N-D) and combined stress. HW and drought acted in a different manner. Under both adequate and deprived soil nutrient conditions, in the presence of adequate water supply, HW up regulated the photosynthetic performance of rape. However, drought-induced stress was highly exacerbated under HW, leading to the incomplete recovery that was additionally impaired by nutrient deficiency.

Session: 47, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:30 to 12:33
Flash presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00547] Microwave communication networks as a sustainable tool of rainfall monitoring for agriculture needs in Africa
by David N., Gao H.O., Kumah K.K., Hoedjes J.C.B., Su Z., Liu Y.

Commercial Microwave Links (CMLs), that provide the underlying framework for data transfer between cellular network base stations have been found effective for monitoring rainfall. Wireless infrastructure of this kind is deployed widely by communication providers across Africa and can be used as a complementary monitoring device to the sparse proprietary resources that exist currently, and at minimal cost, or as a substitute tool in the many cases where alternatives do not exist. Here we focus on the potential that lies in this novel approach to acquire valuable information required for agricultural needs over the poverty-stricken countries of Africa.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00136] Aerial Spectral Index Analysis For Differential Management Zone Delineation In A Maize Field
by Tsakmakis I.D., Panagopoulos S.G., Gikas G.D., Sylaios G.K.

Inhomogeneities of soil properties are responsible for within-field variations on the growth and final yield of crops. In this paper the variations of a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) field map, obtained through a camera mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, were correlated with soil and plant properties measured in a typical maize cultivated field. Subsequently, the perspective of organizing the field into differential management zones through the NDVI was evaluated. The coefficient of variation for sand, silt, clay and soil organic matter content at five points was found to exceed 11% while the corresponding value for biomass and yield were greater than 14%, indicating significant spatial field soil heterogeneity and variations on plant growth. When correlated to NDVI, sand content exhibited a negative correlation (r=-0.86), while in the case of silt, clay, organic matter content, biomass and yield the correlation was positive (r>0.8). Lastly, the NDVI confirmed to be a powerful tool for the delineation of deferential management zones.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:15 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability
[CEST2019_00093] Tolerance of Moringa oleifera to Water Stress
by Boumenjel A., Pantera A., Ammari Y.

Moringa oleifera (Lam) is a fast growing tree that is gradually getting more attention for it numerous uses. It is often called "natural gift" or "miracle tree" because of its many nutritional, forage, medicinal and industrial potentialities. Moringa oleifera appears to be a promising multipurpose species for use under a changing climate. To test possible adaptation potential and / or tolerance of Moringa oleifera to water stress, an experiment was conducted under semi controlled conditions. Stress was induced in the semi-controlled experiment by the application of different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000), to cause different levels of water potential stress for twenty days. The effect of water stress to plant growth was evaluated based on chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoid compared to controls. Water stress resulted to a 70% gain in chlorophylls b, 44% losses in chlorophyll a and 45% in carotenoids. These results testify the tolerance ability of Moringa oleifera plants to water stress.

Session: 41, Room: E, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:00 to 09:15
Oral presentation in Agroforestry, Forest and Agricultural Sustainability