Electric and electronic waste

This paper presents one of the core deliverable reports of the LIFE-REWEEE project, the “Mapping Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) reuse and WEEE preparing for reuse practices and initiatives in Greece”. The main goal of this report was – for the first time in Greece – the development of a reliable and updated baseline regarding the current conditions on (W)EEE reuse and preparing for reuse in Greece (i.e. practices and initiatives). The study evolved into two parallel axes: i) Collection, assessment and analysis of data from reliable sources, and ii) Investigation of the impact of economic crisis in Greece on WEEE generation.

Session: 44, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

The pursuit of the sustainable development goal of responsible consumption and production requires innovative multi-disciplinary approaches. These goals are achieved in the present work with the use of granulated plastic made from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) panels as a substitute for sand in the production of concrete mixtures. The optimal amount of plastic added, curing time, and water-cement ratio were determined experimentally. Data show that a theoretical compressive strength of 17.68 MPa was achieved using a water-cement ratio of 0.45, 6% sand replacement and 19 days curing time. While this strength is already suitable for general construction purposes, this represents a 13.54-percent deterioration compared with conventional concrete. Thus, enhancement was done with the addition of arrowroot powder as organic admixture which improved the compressive strength to a level comparable to conventional concrete. These results reveal that E-plastics are technically viable process inputs in the production of building materials and provide a sustainable strategy for responsible consumption and production.

Session: 44, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is the fastest growing waste stream in Europe. This waste contains a high amount of critical and valuable metals as the rare earths defined critical materials from European Commission (2010) and the precious metals. Exhaust fluorescent lamps are examples of electronic wastes that have important percentages of rare earths elements (REEs). These types of WEEE represent an important secondary source of REEs. Moreover, they are classified as hazardous materials for the presence of mercury and need to be properly handled. Among the most valuable component of WEE there are printed circuit boards (PCBs) for their precious metals content. In the present paper a hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of REEs (yttrium, europium, terbium, gadolinium, lanthanum and cerium) from fluorescent powders and copper, tin, zinc, gold and silver from WPCBs. Hydrometallurgical process for rare earths recovery includes a preliminary roasting, acid dissolution and precipitation of a mixture of REEs oxalates. Alternately, a solvent extraction operation and stripping can be added after dissolution to selective recover rare earths. For the WPCBs treatment, a hydrometallurgical process consisting of two sequential leaching procedures (performed in counter and cross current ways) followed by selective precipitation/reduction of elements of interest from solution has been designed.

Session: 38, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are a necessity for electronic equipment to function especially in the telecommunication industries. From a PCB for broadcasting networks to PCBs for office communications they are what makes electronic communications equipment operate. The sophistication possible with modern electronic and microelectronic devices depends ultimately on the materials they are made from. Metals have assumed a vital role in electronics at every stage in their evolution. PCBs are rich in base and precious metals, and should be considered as secondary resources. Bioleaching is a proven green and sustainable method for metal recovery as demonstrated in the mining industry, but application to recover metals from electronic equipment is still limited. In this study, bioleaching is applied for the first time to the telecommunications products that have reached the end of their useful life. Because several biological and physicochemical parameters can influence bioleaching, the first step in this study was to analyse the metal content of PCBs. In the second part, the effect of different parameters on bioleaching is investigated, with the aim of improving metal recovery. Altogether, the study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioleaching for metal recovery from WEEE.

Session: 38, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

Nowadays the screens collected by the official e-waste schemes in France are mostly comprised of Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). Nevertheless, Flat Panel Display (FPD) collection should increase in the following years. Among other differences in material compositions, FPD screens have higher plastic content. In order to keep complying with the recycling targets for screens, as well as to increase the recycling performance per material, it is necessary to improve plastics recycling. The goal of this study is to quantify the plastic flows in screens generated, collected and recycled in France and to identify the current scenario of plastic recycling. The presence of flame retardants and additives in the plastics, the variety of polymer types, as well as the high volumes of black plastics are among the main challenges in plastics sorting and recycling. From the economic outlook, it is necessary to develop the market that uses secondary raw materials to ensure the profitability of the WEEE chain.

Session: 38, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is defined as a special waste flow due to the fact that contains hazardous materials and should not be mixed and treat with other waste streams. In order to ensure adequate environmental protection and proper management of this waste flow, Serbia has harmonized its legislation in this field with the EU regulations. However, main objectives are still not implemented, mainly because undeveloped separate collection scheme and lack of advanced treatment technologies. Also, EPR principles are still not fully established, including issues in ensuring stabile financial support for treatment operators. In this paper, an overview of the current situation, as well as problems and challenges in the management of WEEE in Serbia, with the focus on the recycling industry, will be addressed.

Session: 44, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

The red alga Galdieria phlegrea was used as an experimental organism to test the bioaccumulation of rare earth elements (REEs) from luminophores. Algal cells were cultured mixotrophically in a liquid medium with addition of glycerol as a source of carbon. Luminophores from two different sources (fluorescence lamps and energy saving light bulbs) were added into the medium in the form of a powder. The cell number was monitored to follow the growth of the algal culture. The content of single REEs in the luminophores, and the biomass, were determined using ICP-MS. The most abundant element in both luminophores was yttrium, representing about 90% w/w. The growth of cultures grown in the presence of both luminophores was comparable with the control. The total amount of accumulated REEs in biomass differed with the type and concentration of luminophore used. The most abundant element accumulated in the biomass was lanthanum. To conclude, Galdieria phlegrea can grow in the presence of luminophores and accumulate REEs. The enriched biomass is a promising template for biotechnological applications.

Session: 44, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:30 to 12:33
Flash presentation in Electric and electronic waste

The technology of Lithium batteries is nowadays greatly developing, as they are an efficient mean of energy storage. Their main use is in electric and electronic devices. Moreover after 2010, these batteries are also used in the development of electric vehicles, an industrial sector which has a high growth rate. Since these technologies are advancing and the quantitative use of Lithium batteries in Europe is expected to increase, a flow of Lithium batteries waste will be generated that will need novel methods to be treated. Therefore, much research should be done focusing on the waste batteries, their collection and possibilities of reuse. Recent approaches in battery recycling are focusing on material separation and partially processed raw material re-use. But concerns about the great amounts of waste, the possible lack of the primary materials included in the batteries and also the possible soil and water contamination, is leading the scientists to find new methods of restoring, reusing and expanding the life cycle of Lithium batteries.
The objective of the present work is to review the current status and future prospects of lithium batteries use and treatment as waste. The increasing importance of Lithium as well as its present applications, the storage and reuse methods as well as its constraints as an energy storage material will be highlighted in the work.

Session: 38, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste

WEEE streams challenge the goals towards a circular economy, since WEEE contain valuable and scarce resources that could be prepared for a second life or recovered. In the framework of the project LIFE REWEEE (LIFE14 ENV/GR/000858), Hellenic Recycling Agency (HRA) aims to raise awareness among stakeholders and consumers on the preference for reuse rather than consumption and recycling. A set of specifications have been prepared, applicable to the collection, storage, sorting of WEEE and to all stages of the preparing for reuse process. The specifications aim to provide an integrated legal framework in Greece and simultaneously a standard procedure for managing WEEE in order to encourage the reuse of WEEE as promoted by the Directive 2012/19/EU and the MD 23615/651/Ε.103/2014. Moreover, a Guide describing prevention and management practices of WEEE addressed to citizens was prepared, which provides information to the citizens concerning ways of extending appliances’ life and alternative treatment ways of WEEE. Finally, Repair Events were organized for citizens who had the opportunity to repair their appliances without cost and to be introduced in an attractive way to the WEEE prevention culture. This paper presents the HRA’s actions to promote reuse as well as restrictions faced and further actions.

Session: 44, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Electric and electronic waste