Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport

[CEST2019_00945] The Agia Zoni II oil spill: Short-term fate and imprint on the marine ecosystem of the Saronikos Gulf, Greece
by Parinos C., Hatzianestis I.,Chourdaki S., Plakidi E., Gogou A.

Herein we examine the spatial and temporal imprint of the September 2017 Agia Zoni II tanker heavy fuel oil spill on the marine ecosystem of the Saronikos Gulf, Greece. Based on the chemical fingerprinting approach we characterize changes in the composition of the spilled oil across sampling sites and evaluate major mechanisms affecting its fate during the first six months from the spill. Overall, the main effects of the incident were confined to the coastal zone during the first three months after the spill where an extended petroleum imprint was recorded in many cases. In the first three months from the spill the oil was affected by combination of rapid biodegradation, volatilization processes and photodegradation, the later playing a role in its early days weathering. Regarding sediments, an imprint related to the incident was recorded in some cases but mild in respect to the chronic petroleum associated anthropogenic background of the affected area.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:15 to 16:30
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00946] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the open Aegean Sea: Contribution of maritime traffic
by Hatzianestis I., Parinos C., Gogou A.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surficial sediments collected from 39 stations in the open Aegean Sea, in order to assess their occurrence, distribution and major sources. Total PAH concentrations were generally low, comparable to those reported in relatively unpolluted marine areas. The highest values were recorded in the northern part Aegean Sea, which apparently receives more anthropogenic inputs both from continental runoff and atmospheric deposition. Several diagnostic criteria were used to investigate PAHs’ origin. Their molecular profile reveals contributions from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources, with their relative importance displaying significant regional variability. Phenanthrenes, which are known to mostly originate from unburned fossil fuels were found in percentages higher than 50% in the Central part of Aegean Sea and their occurrence was correlated with the marine traffic in the area. The PAH concentrations are significantly correlated with the total organic carbon content of sediments, which indicates that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in sediments.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:06 to 17:09
Flash presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00933] Problems related to Ship Recycling IMO Regulations
by Boviatsis M., Alexopoulos A.B., Polemis D.

Scrapping market is unique in many respects. The value of its products is more affected by ınternational trade than by shipping economic circles. There are many regulations for the environmentally friendly dismantling of ships. Ship recycling is the eco-friendly method of ship dismantling, it is governed by a set of rules, namely: a) Hong Kong Convention on Ship Recycling - SRC - (implemented by IMO), b) UN Basel Convention and c) E.U. Waste Shipment Regulation. Despite this polyphony in legislation, no clear set of rules has been uniformly applied yet, resulting in institutional discontinuities which are often exploited by shipowners.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:00 to 15:15
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00934] Chemical tanker accidents and the 2010 HNS convention
by Boviatsis M., Alexopoulos A.B., Vlachos G.P., Samiotis G.

The 2010 HNS Convention covers any damage caused by the carriage by sea of hazardous and noxious substances in the territory or territorial sea of a State Party to the Convention. The costs of preventive actions, i.e. measures to avoid or minimize damage, are also covered wherever taken. The HNSC includes preventive measures as any reasonable measures taken by any person after an incident has occurred to prevent or minimize damage, i.e.actions such as clean-up or removal of HNS from a wreck if the HNS present a hazard or pollution risk. It seems that after the CLC (1992), much environmental legislation has lost the concept of pro-activeness/prevention of an environmental hazard and are more focused on compensation and reactiveness. This approach is not consistent with the purpose of environmental legislation and the examination of the basic principles of HNSC in parallel with distinctive environmental hazards, proves this theory of reactive strategy.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:03 to 17:06
Flash presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00915] European and IMO framework on the disposal of ship waste - Greek legal interventions
by Ntente P., Manologlou S., Tselentis V.

For almost every type of ship-generated waste, there is a variety of waste flows and on-board treatment methods. Studies show that ships use different treatment methods and often only treat part of a waste stream. This results in a difference between the amounts of waste generated and the amounts landed, indicating that measures, such as for example IMO’s obligatory Garbage Management Plans, fall short of sustainable and operational efficiency. The fact that IMO is encouraging voluntary cooperation between ports and shipping sectors to solve such problems indicates the urgency in developing the legislator framework of waste management, amongst other issues plaguing the shipping industry. This paper is part of a broader insight into ship generated waste and addresses the existing legislation pertinent to waste management on ships and the role of ports. In this respect the European institutional framework is presented in addition to IMO Conventions and regulations. The Greek legislative framework is also studied, in an attempt to highlight possible novel contributions to the ongoing debate.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:15 to 15:30
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00921] European environmental compulsory framework on shipping and ports
by Kotrikla A.M., Andrea V., Nikitakos N., Stylios C.

The European Maritime transport policy has embraced important environmental protection schemes that are directly or indirectly connected to shipping and port performance. A comprehensive database on the European Union (EU) environmental policy for the last 30 years has been attempted concerning mainly shipping and ports in terms of mandatory secondary law. The regulatory instruments were classified according to their subject; while, the main patterns were identified and the connections with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) framework were highlighted. The major findings disclose a complementary operation by both IMO and EU.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:30 to 15:45
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00925] A comparative analysis between EU MRV and IMO DCS – the need to adopt a harmonised regulatory system.
by Boviatsis M., Tselentis B.

This paper analyses and compares the two methods proposed for monitoring, reporting and verifying CO2 emissions from shipping, namely the European Union MRV Regulation (EU 2015/757) and the Global Data Collection System of the IMO for fuel oil consumption of ships adopted as an amendment to MARPOL Annex VI in 2016. The two systems differ considerably in many aspects, such as, for example, the IMO DCS requires the reporting of ships' fuel consumption data, while the EU MRV involves the reporting of CO2 emission; the weight of cargo carried and energy efficiency. As recently as February 2019, efforts have been made to achieve a harmonised approach to both systems, thus supporting compliance and minimising extra administrative costs incurred on shipping companies. The EU MRV system maintains the provisions on publication of individual ships’ data of CO2 emissions and energy efficiency, thus keeping transparency as one of its key advantages.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:00 to 17:03
Flash presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00926] A proactive international regulation system based on technological innovations against emerging environmental threats
by Boviatsis M., Alexopoulos A.B., Theodosiou M.

The adoption and enforcement of most conventions and regulations have been triggered by a series of disasters that had devastating effects on the marine environment. To improve the safety levels at sea and at the same time to protect the marine environment, it is imperative that the major shipping nations must ratify and make domestic law the international rules. Consequently, MARPOL, other conventions and codes refer to significant actions for minimising most pollution threats to the marine environment. So, member-states through their national ship-owners must comply with every new or amended regulation. This paper will focus on types of pollution that are not covered by any international legislation or are at a preliminary stage for future implementation. These types are: (i) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), (ii) Carbon Dioxide (CO₂), (iii) SOx Scrubbers Wash Water.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:45 to 16:00
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00736] European port trends in environmental issues
by Puig M., Raptis S., Wooldridge C.,Darbra Rm.

This paper presents the current environmental performance of the European Port Sector, based on the 2018 results of a wide representation of EcoPorts members (90 ports).All the information presented in this research comes from aggregate data of the Self-Diagnosis Method (SDM), a concise checklist against which ports can self-assess their environmental management and compare it to the performance of the EU port sector. The SDM tool is currently managed by the European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO), which is the responsible body for this study.A set of environmental performance indicators have been analysed and their results have been discussed in this research. These key environmental indicators are categorized in: i) Environmental Management Indicators summarized in the Environmental Management Index; ii) Environmental Monitoring Indicators; iii) Top 10 Environmental Priorities for the port, and iv) Indicators on Services to Shipping offered by the port authority in order to facilitate a greener shipping.In addition to these indicators, selected benchmark performance elements are also introduced on additional topics, such as environmental communication, training or emergency planning. Moreover, the 2018 results have been compared with data on previous years, allowing the analysis of trends over time of the European port sector environmental performance.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:00 to 16:15
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00467] The importance of the ecosystem approach in management of the marine environment
by Tseliou F., Tselepides A.

The present paper focuses on the importance of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) for the preservation and conservation of the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are complex entities that contribute significantly to the sustainable well being of people by providing a wide range of goods and services. The economic benefits acquired, due to their function, are enormous and to a large extent impossible to estimate. Thus, due to the extensive and irrational use, and overexploitation of marine resources, arises the need for an integrated, holistic, approach in order to achieve sustainable management. The EA is based on the deeper understanding of the ecological, economical, societal and cultural interactions and constitutes the ultimate tool for the implementation and achievement of sustainable development. EA is the key for balancing out a number of users of marine resources and stakeholders so as to promote the critical role of the green economy and (sustainable) blue growth, which includes maritime activities, fisheries, renewable energy, blue biotechnology etc. The objective always remains to optimize the benefits provided by the oceans while at the same time the EA contributes to minimize the pressures of human activities.

Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:45 to 17:00
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport
[CEST2019_00178] The New Port Reception Facilities Directive - Changes and Challenges
by Athanassopoulou V.
Session: 15, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:30 to 16:45
Oral presentation in Environmental Impact of Maritime Transport