Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation

[CEST2019_00918] A pilot test in Eastern Bohemia for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons groundwater remediation
by Silvestri D., Wacławek S., Stejskal V., Vlkova D., Kvapil P., Kohout P., Hrabak P., Černík M.

The bioremediation of chlorinated solvents is considered as cheap and eco-friendly approach, among the bioremediation techniques the stimulation of organohalide-respiring bacteria by adding substrates is considered as one of the most popular methods. Application of cheese whey was performed in three separate rounds via direct-push technique. Monitoring of groundwater was performed once before the first injection of cheese whey in November 2017 and then monthly until April 2019. Groundwater samples were analyzed for chlorinated ethenes, its bioremediation byproducts and this analysis were correlated with the biological activity on the site that was assessed with the use of PCR and next-generation sequencing tests.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:12 to 13:15
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00815] Cooperation of bacteria and fungus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation
by Vrchotová B.,Danda M., Lovecká P.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are diverse family of hydrophobic organic pollutants. They can be removed from environment by bacterial degradation. One of the process which could limit biodegradation is transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in to aqueous phase were degrading microorganisms live. In this work we would like to evaluate possible role of fungi in increasing transport of hydrophobic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in to the aqueous phase. Increased transport should result in increased degradation of contaminants in our case polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:00 to 13:03
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00817] Origin of Cr in alluvial sediments and ultramafic rocks in Sultanate of Oman. Magnetic fractionation and sunlight effect.
by Moraetis D., Al-Suhai A.S., Pyrgaki K., Argyraki A., Dermatas D.

The present study attempts to identify the sources of Cr(VI) in a coastal alluvial fan soil and soil from a chromite mine. In addition investigates the effect of photochemically oxidized organic matter in the Cr(VI) mobilization in soil. The alluvial bulk soil samples contain several evidence of weathered products of the ophiolite nappe like serpentine and amphiboles. For better characterization we separated different soil fractions with magnetic separation. The results showed that magnetic fraction exhibits high amount of serpentine. The XRF-analysis showed Mg and Cr to be enriched on average by 2.5 and 6 times, respectively. The produced fractions were mixed with glucose to simulate organic carbon and then leached with KH2PO4/Na2HPO4 for the exchangeable Cr in all fractions before and after the exposure of the samples in the sun for several days. The results showed that soils from chromite mine were influenced by oxidation of organic matter with 20-30% reduction in Cr(VI) release, while alluvial fun soils showed very high capacity to immobilize Cr(VI) without any effect from organic matter oxidation.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:03 to 13:06
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00818] Quntitative PCR as a tool for analysis of diversity in soil microbiome
by Macurkova A., Drobnikova T., Maryska L., Jindrichova B., Burketova L., Siegel J., Valentova O., Lovecka P.

Majority of terrestrial soils are used primarily for agricultural production. The main factor of soil fertility is mediated by soil microorganisms and invertebrates. Soil microorganisms plays crutial role in ecosystems nutrient cycling and therefore any change in their diversity could have serious consequences on soil fertility and agricultural yields. Silver nanoparticles as novel potentialy nontoxic compounds are nowadays used in many daily use products and also as pesticides. But based on their antimicrobial activity, they can adversely influence structure of soil microbiome. Our work is focused on qPCR analysis of soil microbiome diversity with and without silver nanoparticles treatment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed concentration dependent shifts in microbial diversity, usually in the favor of one phylogenetic group of bacteria or fungi and analysis of melting curves showed changes inside individual phylogenetic groups.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:06 to 13:09
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00819] Complex approach for analysis of changes in soil microbiome
by Macurkova A., Drobnikova T., Maryska L., Jindrichova B., Burketova L., Siegel J., Valentova O., Lovecka P.

In the few past decades, genetic approaches for analysis of soil microbiome, e.g pyrosequencing, gained major attention and cultivation techniques were pushed into the background. The combination of several techniques could be useful and cheap approach for analysis of changes in soil microbiome. In our study of effect of silver nanoparticles on soil microbiome we exploited classical microbiological and biochemical methods for assessment of microbial structure. Effect caused by addition of silver nanoparticles was concentration dependent, the highest concentration of silver nanoparticles caused, besides the others, significant decrease in dehydrogenase activity of soil microorganisms. Concentration dependent changes in soil microbiome were also detected, e.g. in total numbers of cultivable microorganisms, cellulolytic or peroxidase. CLPP indicated significant shift in microbial diversity in all levels of substrate utilization.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:09 to 13:12
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00603] In-Situ Removal of Antibiotics in Soil by Cold Plasma
by Hatzisymeon M., Tataraki D., Rassias G., Aggelopoulos C.

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was examined for the remediation of antibiotic ciprofloxacin-polluted soil. Experiments were conducted in two different electrode configurations of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors (i.e. cylinder-to-cylindrical grid and plane-to-grid) driven by a high voltage nanosecond pulse generator. The aforementioned DBD reactor configurations correspond to ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation, respectively. Initial concentration of ciprofloxacin in soil was 200 mg/kg, and the effect of CAP operating conditions such as treatment time, applied voltage and pulse frequency were investigated and optimized. Increase of pulse frequency, applied voltage and plasma treatment time resulted in the increase of degradation efficiency of ciprofloxacin. In the plane-to-grid reactor, ciprofloxacin was completely removed after 5 minutes of CAP treatment in the optimized conditions. In addition, preliminary results showed that complete removal of ciprofloxacin can be also achieved in the cylinder-to-cylindrical grid reactor, indicating that DBD can be also applied for the in-situ remediation of ciprofloxacin-polluted soils.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00628] Isolation and optimization of microbial consortia for the biodegradation of two persistent fluorinated fungicides
by Alexandrino D.A.M., Mucha A.P., Almeida C.R.M., Carvalho M.F.

Microbial consortia capable of completely removing and defluorinating two persistent fluorinated fungicides, epoxiconazole (EPO) and fludioxonil (FLU), were enriched from an estuarine sediment and an agriculture soil. The enrichments were conducted along 6 months, during which the fungicides were supplemented individually to the cultures every 21 days at 5 mgL-1, using sodium acetate as a co-metabolite (fed twice a week at 400 mgL-1). Biodegradation of EPO and FLU was detected early on the enrichment phase and a gradual increase on their performances was observed throughout this period. After ca. 5 months, the complete removal and defluorination of EPO and FLU was observed for all cultures in a period of 10-15 days. These biodegradation efficiencies were found to be similar in the absence of a co-metabolite. The two pesticides were efficiently biodegraded at concentrations up to 10 mgL-1. By estimating the biodegradation kinetics of the enriched consortia, it was possible to determine half-life values significantly lower than those reported in the literature for these pesticides, rendering EPO and FLU as non-recalcitrant under these experimental conditions. 16S rDNA analysis showed that these consortia harbor bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum. Current work is focused on the optimization of the degrading consortia and on the elucidation of the metabolic pathways of these pesticides.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00577] Lessons from long-term field phytostabilisation studies
by Siebielec G., Siebielec S., Stuczynski T., Sugier P.

Smelter waste deposits or soils near smelters that are heavily polluted pose a threat to environment and human health worldwide. There is limited availability of long-term phytostabilization field studies evaluating and documenting persistence of tested remediation methods. The paper combines experience from greenhouse testing of most effective soil amendments and long-term field experiments aimed at optimizing phytostabilisation of toxic smelter waste deposits. We compared the impact of novel soil amendments and their combinations with traditional materials on metal solubility and the response of plants, soil organisms and microbial activity. Field evaluations involved long-term smelter wasteland site reclaimed with biosolids and by-product limestone combined with implementation of resistant grass species. The data on metal extractability and bioavailability, plant cover, microbial activity, abundance and biodiversity is presented.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00572] Geochemical modelling as a tool to investigate chromium contamination in groundwater
by Apollaro C., Fuoco I.

Geochemical modelling is an essential tool to understand the water-rock interaction processes. In this work has been used the reaction path modelling to investigate the release and fate of geogenic Cr in ophiolitic Italian areas. During the water-rock interaction the geogenic trivalent Cr hosted in Cr-bearing minerals (serpentine minerals, spinels, pyroxene, etc.) of serpentinites rocks is oxidized in Cr (VI) highly toxic, resulting largely dangerous for environment and human health. This geochemical modelling was performed varying Fe2O3/(FeO+Fe2O3) weight ratios considering the trivalent Fe the main oxidant present in suitable amounts in serpentinite rock. The reaction paths reproduces the analytical concentrations of relevant solutes, including Cr(VI), in the Mg-HCO3 groundwaters hosted in the ophiolitic aquifers of Italy.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00530] Technology Critical Elements in industrial wastes as the source of soil contamination
by Rachwał M., Jabłońska-Czapla M.,Grygoyć K., Fornalczyk A.,Willner J.

The intensive development of industry, especially the mining and metallurgy, automotive and electrical industries, affects the increasing amount of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE), including Technology Critical Elements (TCE) in the environment. This preliminary study focuses on the following TCE: Ga, Ge and Tl. The main thing they have in common is that they have not been much studied and the level of knowledge concerning the environmental impact of their use is quite slight. Additionally, content of more common PTE (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn) was determined in order to discover some relationships between these both group.
Soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-5 cm) and subsoil (25-30 cm) in industrial area influenced by metallurgical slag dump and road traffic. Concentrations of elements were determined with High-Resolution Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) after HNO3 microwave digestion. Results revealed that almost all studied elements were in higher amount in the topsoil suggesting the anthropogenic pollution as a source of their content in soil.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:30 to 10:33
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00500] Groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical characterization of Khetri copper mining region, India
by Punia A., Siddaiah N.S., Bharti R.

The impact of copper mine on groundwater quality in the semi-arid region is evaluated, and also characterized for hydrogeochemical processes. Groundwater samples (post monsoon and pre monsoon) from Khetri copper mine region of Rajasthan, India were studied. In majority of groundwater samples, the values of analyzed parameters such as EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, HCO3- and Cl- exceed the WHO (2011) and Bureau of Indian Standards (2012) permissible limits. Higher concentrations of ions were observed near the mining activities (mines, tailings, overburden rocks and abandoned mine) and in the downstream of groundwater flow from mines suggesting significant influence of mines on water quality. High concentration of major ions is attributed to oxidation of sulfides or acid mine drainage (AMD). The Gibbs plot for cations and anions as a function of TDS indicates the evolution of groundwater from rock-water interaction in both seasons. Thus, increased major ions concentration is due to dissolution of minerals by AMD.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:36 to 10:39
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00481] Origin of the salinity in the groundwater of the El Attaf alluvial aquifer
by Richa A., Touil S., Djezzar M., Douaoui A.

The choice of this research theme was guided by the desire to better understand environmental issues, namely salinity and its origin, through the use of geophysical data from various surveys carried out between 1969 (CGG) and 2002 (IFES), to highlight the impact of the geological and structural upheavals that occurred during the earthquake of October 10, 1980, on the hydrodynamic processes. The interpretation of the resistivity data revealed that water salinity is highly variable and generally high near Jebel Temoulga. Chemical analyzes of all wells in the region confirm this. The hydrochemical study has shown the influence of local geology on the chemistry of the waters of the neighboring aquifer, and raises the question of the importance of gypso-saliferous facies in the region of El Attaf. The multifunctional statistical analysis revealed two chemical profiles within the same aquifer, but it should be noted that the highest concentrations were recorded on the Hay Bel Abbes - Bir Saf Saf axis.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:33 to 10:36
Flash presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00463] Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): an emerging contaminant
by Toskos T., Panagiotakis I.,Dermatas D.

PFAS compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and in consumer products. Unlike other emergent contaminants this is a family of compounds with, literally, thousands members. Our knowledge of toxicological and environmental fate and transport properties is an evolving field. On the other hand, regulatory limits (when they exist) are extremely low and address only a limited handful of compounds. Because of their physical-chemical properties there are unconventional migration pathways, such as sewer exfiltration and biosolids residuals, that complicate site assessment and site closure. Surveys to date in Greece are fragmented and very limited in scope and focus. The objective of this study is to discuss how professional judgement should be used to collect appropriate data to both define the nature and extent of impact and to assess whether receptors may be adversely impacted and how to select an appropriate remedy, if mitigation of those impacts is warranted.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00208] Bioaugmentation process for PAHs contaminated soil remediation through microbial inocula from anaerobic treatment of lignocellulosic substrate
by Ferraro A., Massini G., Mazzurco Miritana V., Panico A., Pontoni L., Race M., Rosa S., Signorini A., Fabbricino M., Pirozzi F.

In the present work, an anaerobic bioremediation treatment was investigated for reclamation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil. The PAHs contaminated soil was artificially prepared and seven different contamination conditions were tested. In particular, four soils were contaminated solely by naphthalene (A), anthracene (B), pyrene (C) and benzo[a]pyrene (D), respectively, whereas, three soils were contaminated by benzo[a]pyrene coupled with one of the other investigated PAHs (i.e. A+D, B+D, and C+D tests). Such conditions were tested in order to study the possible degradation kinetic for the single involved PAH (with aromatic rings ranging from 2 to 5) as well as for PAHs mixed with a 5-aromatic rings contaminant (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene). The investigated treatment was carried out in bioaugmented condition through two microbial inocula obtained from anaerobic digestion tests on lignocellulosic substrate. In more detail, the two inocula were differently enriched through experiments characterized by sequential re-inoculation on new substrate, for its subsequent treatment, every 24 h and 96 h, respectively. The present study focused on the PAHs degradation efficiency and pathways, and microbiological abundance characterization, thus providing a comprehensive and interdisciplinary view to assess the feasibility of the suggested treatment in the field of PAHs contaminated soil remediation.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:45 to 13:00
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00155] Thermal degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
by Stockenhuber S., Weber N., Dixon L., Lucas J., Grimison C., Bennett M., Stockenhuber M., Mackie J., Kennedy E.,

Per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of environmental contaminants, that are dispersed throughout the world. A number of areas have been affected by their persistence and biomagnification. PFAS remediation of contaminated material requires extensive knowledge of the species involved. A method to simplify the study of the thermal degradation of PFAS is presented in this paper, providing a solution to experimental and analytical challenges. A three-zone furnace allowed manipulation of both reaction temperature and gas flowrate (and consequently residence time). The PFAS compound could be charged and vaporised in a separate zone. Adopting this experimental methodology, a kinetic model describing the decomposition of the PFAS can be devised. When reacting under an inert nitrogen atmosphere, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degraded at temperatures above 450 °C. The products observed were found to be hydrofluoric acid (HF) and carbon dioxide (CO2), along with a perfluoro-1-heptene species. Additional products of 1H-perfluorohexane or 1H-perfluoroheptane were also observed when residence times were increased. The effect of water vapour was also investigated, with similar behaviour to pyrolysis being observed, where a significantly higher concentration of HF was detected under otherwise similar reaction conditions. These preliminary results suggest water vapour accelerates the rate of PFAS decomposition.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00159] Thermal Decomposition of Chlorpyrifos - an Experimental Investigation
by Weber N., Stockenhuber S., Dixon L., Lucas J., Grimison C., Stockenhuber M., Mackie J., Benhelal E.,Kennedy E.

Organophosphate compounds are a group of chemicals that are commonly used in pest control. One widely used organophosphate is chlorpyrifos (CPF), which has been associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChE), an acute neurotoxin. Further, under thermal decomposition conditions, such as those that occur in bushfires, CPF has been shown to produce a dioxin-like compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-[1,4]-dioxinodipyridine (TCDDpy). To assist in understanding the reaction of CPF, an experimental methodology was developed which enabled the study of its thermal decomposition. CPF was pyrolysed in a three-zone furnace, leading to the formation of its major degradation product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The study revealed that ethylene gas and a solid sulfur/phosphorous compound were also generated with the TCP product. TCP undergoes further thermal decomposition to form several chlorinated products. Experiments undertaken under oxidative conditions revealed that TCP (at temperatures above 900 K and at a residence time of 9 s) also produced HCl and cis and trans forms of TCDDpy. The results of this study compare favourably with our previous theoretical work.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00116] Analysis of hydrochemical time series
by Kolarec B., Žeravica A.

Agricultural activity of spreading fertilizers may, in case they are washed away to an aquifer, result in a groundwater contamination. There was a research conducted in Croatia on the lower part of the Danube-Sava canal which is occupied by extensive agricultural production to measure the groundwater pollution by nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and phosphate. Amounts of these nutrients were measured six times per year over the period of fifteen years (2004.-2018.) by installed hydrogeological piezometers. The obtained data, given for a relatively long period of time, were analysed by methods of time-series to determine trends. It was established that although concentrations of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen occasionally exceeded the value of maximum allowable concentration, long term trends of all pollutants are still slightly decreasing.

Session: 9, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation
[CEST2019_00113] Screening of polar pesticides in groundwater in Hebei Province, China
by Huang Y.,Guo X., Rao Z., Yang Z., Liu C., Shi Z.

As a big agricultural country,China has a relatively high pesticide usage in unit area , which is three times higher than developed countries. About 80% of pesticides directly enter the soil and the water through leaching or surface runoff during the usage of pesticides. In particular, some of the polar compounds are easier to migrate than other compounds, causing pollution of surface water and groundwater. The groundwater samples in Hebei Province, a major agriculture province in China, were screened by multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for two consecutive years in 2014 and 2015. The results showed that among 44 polar compounds, 27 pesticides were detected in 2014 and 19 in 2015. Atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl, 2,4-D and fomesafen were 434.3 ng/L, 711.5 ng/L and 508.2 ng/L respectively, which were significantly higher than those in other provinces in China. Atrazine and its metabolites were detected in both years. Except for Atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl, other components were detected in high concentration in 2014. The detected concentrations of bentazone, hexaconazole, triadimenol, and triazolone were similar in the two years. Pesticides such as methomyl, isopropyl, diniconazole and imazethapyr were detected in 2014, but not in 2015, which is presumably related to the actual use of pesticides.

Session: 3, Room: C, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Soil and groundwater contamination and remediation