Life cycle analysis (LCA)

[CEST2019_00931] Environmental and Economic LCI of a micro-CPV module
by Abad D., San Miguel G., Domínguez C., Jost N., Gutıérrez F.

Despite the renewable nature of solar energy, the sustainability of photovoltaic (PV) systems needs to be evaluated in order to minimize adverse environmental impacts and optimize economic performance. This piece of research represents a first approach to produce an environmental and economic assessment of a 1.0 m2 (350 W) micro concentrator PV (microCPV) module designed at Institute of Solar Energy (IES-UPM) in Spain. The incorporation of concentrating lenses allows this technology to produce electricity from direct solar radiation at higher efficiencies than conventional PV cells. The aim of this work is to propose a representative architecture for the micro-CPV system that allows the quantification of a material, energy and economic Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), as the basis to conduct a Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCC) and an Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:27 to 12:30
Flash presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00813] Environmental, economic and socio-economic life cycle assessment of the Spanish electricity system
by Cerrato M.,San Miguel G.

This paper investigates the sustainability of the Spanish electricity system under four different scenarios for 2030 and 2050 published by a reputable think tank assessing the Spanish Government. The analysis was performed using a life cycle approach and evaluates five sustainability indicators: overall carbon footprint, carbon footprint per MWh, overall economic costs, LCOE and job creation. The results evidence that the most ambitious scenarios (100 % share of renewables) produced the best results in terms of environmental and socio-economic performance (10-fold reduction of GHG emissions and 15-fold increment in employment compared to 2015) but involved higher costs (15 €/ MWh more expensive).

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00837] Environmental and Economic Life Cycle Inventory of Brussels sprouts
by Rubio-Sánchez M., San Miguel G.

This investigation describes de material, energy and monetary inventories required to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of Brussel sprouts produced in Mexico and consumed in the USA. This data was supplied by a company operating in Mexico as a first step in the production of a LCA and LCC analysis according to ISO 14040-14044: 2006. The inventory covers the following stages in the life cycle of the product: seeding, soil preparation and conditioning, cultivation (fertilization, fumigation and irrigation), harvesting, processing, packaging, internal transport and distribution.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:21 to 12:24
Flash presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00812] Sustainability analysis of a bean stew using Environmental LCA and Life Cycle Cost Assessment
by San Miguel G., Ruiz D.

This investigation aims to investigate the sustainability of an industrially produced bean stew, as a representative example of the ready-made food industry. The analysis covers the environmental and economic dimensions of the products, which were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC), respectively. Key results have shown that most of the environmental impacts and economic costs of this product are attributable to the ingredients, primarily those of animal origin.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00704] Approaches to tackle emerging challenges in European aquaculture
by Bacenetti J., Haaland Gaeta F., Facchinetti D.,Parolini M.

The word demand for fish is increasing. Whilst on one hand, fishing is carried out in a not sustainable ways in the main fishing areas (e.g., overexploitation of natural stocks, remarkable fuel and energy consumption), on the other hand, aquaculture, above all when not performed inland, involves environmental concerns related to the emissions of pollutants in the sea, low resource efficiency and the high consumption of chemicals. Thus, aquaculture should aim to reduce its environmental impact and to produced fish and seafood in a circular economy perspective. This contribution focuses on different approaches to tackle two environmental issues related to aquaculture in Europe: 1) the reduction of impact due to aquaculture farming of edible species and 2) the improvement of the farming of a cleaner fish species to reduce the overexploitation of natural stocks and to solve the dramatic problem of sea lice in Atlantic salmon farming. The first approach aims at developing self-sufficient multi-trophic systems for inland aquaculture in Mediterranean areas. The second approach aims at optimizing the farming of the lumpfish that is used in sea net pen as a killer of salmon sealice. The description of the planned approaches and preliminary results of the SIMTAP (Self-sufficient Integrated Multi-Trophic AquaPonic) project and lumpfish aquaculture, including future challenges and research directions, are reported.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:18 to 12:21
Flash presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00690] Life cycle assessment analysis for remediation technology choice: a case study
by Baric M., De Folly D’auris A., Tonziello J.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) may be helpful in the choice of a remediation technology, because remediation itself entails impacts. Presently, government and public institutions involved in the decisional workflow focused their attention on minimizing risks at site and for the receptors but do not consider environmental effects. The aim of this study was to compare the estimated Global Warming Potential (kgCO2eq.) for dig&dump vs off site soil washing configuration, from a site contaminated by heavy metals. For a significant comparison, all the obtained values were normalized for the m3 of soil to treat. The analysis, conducted with a cradle to grave approach, showed a clear advantage in soil washing technology with an associated GWP of 29,36 kgCO2 eq/m3 versus 1724 kgCO2eq/m3 associated to dig & dump.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:24 to 12:27
Flash presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00479] Regional Variability and Future Trends in Carbon Footprints of Electric Vehicles in China based on THEMIS Model
by Wu Z., Wang C., Wolfram P., Sun X., Sun F., Hertwich E.

This study analyses how carbon footprints of electric vehicles (EVs) in China vary across regions and how they may evolve with power decarbonisation. It is understood that carbon footprints of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depend largely on electricity mixes, but few studies have quantified their interregional divergence and future changes in China. Using THEMIS model as an integrated LCA framework, together with future electricity mixes from MESEIC, a cost optimisation model for the power sector, we calculate current and future carbon footprints of passenger vehicles in China. Results show that, carbon footprints of BEVs across all the 6 regions will drop from 265-419 gCO2e/km in 2017 to 116-383 gCO2e/km in 2050, or 141-266 gCO2e/km, with stringent carbon constraints applied to the power sector. The interregional divergence of BEV carbon footprints will shrink by 20% in the latter scenario. Under carbon constraints, BEV carbon footprints in East, Central, Northwest, and South will have their best-case reduction potentials, by 55%, 55%, 46%, and 5% respectively. Stringent carbon constraints lead to increased share of coal-based generation in North and Northeast, whose most favourable reduction potentials will be 42%, and 69%, respectively, when no carbon constraints exist.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00413] Energy and environmental aspects of distributed generation and electric-vehicle integration from a LCA perspective. A case study in Mendoza, Argentina
by Arena A.P.

The energy sector is moving from a rigid, concentrated system towards a flexible, decentralized one enabling the exchange of energy between many actors. Distributed renewable energy generation is a key element in this new system, offering many (potential) technical, environmental and economic advantages, but their intermittent character and the lack of synchronicity between demand and supply introduce new challenges to the utilities. Storage systems could help mitigating these negative issues, but they require additional costs, and incorporate new environmental problems.
Another key factor in the new energy sector is represented by the growing number of electric vehicles which are populating the urban space, which will need to charge their batteries, thus challenging the electric system’s capacity. However, these vehicles will remain idle most of the time, thus offering an opportunity to electricity storage on their underutilized batteries.
In this paper the environmental consequences of distributed FV generation and storage in electric vehicles in Argentina are explored, following a life cycle perspective. Results show that the Vehicle-to-Grid and Grid-for-Vehicle management strategies will play an important role on demand curve peak-shaving. The scenarios analysis show that the transition to the electric vehicle alone does not ensure lower emissions, if advances in the electricity decarbonization are not accomplished.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00364] Life Cycle evaluation of production and utilisation pathways of coupled Anaerobic Digestion (AD) and Gasification/Pyrolysis systems using the Anaerobic Biorefinery concept.
by Curry R., Cromie T., Somerville G.

Life Cycle Analysis modelling has been applied to an operational Anaerobic Digestion (AD) plant, (utilising Cattle Slurry/Grass Silage), currently producing biogas for electricity and heat production, with digestate going to land-spreading. The aim of the research was to evaluate the environmental costs and benefits of coupling the existing plant with Gasification or Pyrolysis systems for the utilisation of digestate from the plant, producing either predominantly Syngas (Gasification) or Oils/Tars (Pyrolysis). Utilisation pathways evaluated as part of the research include the following: Gasification: Syngas to Methanation to Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG); and Pyrolysis: Syngas and bio-oil to dual-fuel electricity production. While the focus of the evaluation will be the potential GHG-eq emissions reductions achievable from the different processing and utilisation pathways, the full range of impact areas are included in the analysis. The analysis will include reflection on the challenges of applying LCA to complex biorefinery/bioenergy systems to inform future methodological developments and guidance.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00199] Methodology development for implementing Life Cycle Analysis of energy production in the Czech Republic
by Zakuciová K., Štefanica J., Kočí V., Šerešová M., Vlček Z., Vitvarová M., Opatřil J.

Energy mix of the Czech Republic includes various types of fossil energy sources, which currently do not have comprehensive methodology for assessing their environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is important tool for assessing such impacts through the whole life cycle of the sources. Ongoing national project “LCA of energy production in the Czech Republic” is focusing on implementing LCA on several case studies to analyze and compare different national energy sources and technologies from environmental point of view through the three phases of the life cycle – construction, operation and decommissioning. Such an extensive study requires development of methodology which covers necessary technological boundaries and parameters, as well as general principles of LCA methodology. The paper depicts the procedure of the methodology development for implementing LCA tool for energy production of various fossil, nuclear and renewable sources. Methodology will focus on technological and inventory criteria, LCA boundaries for various sources, selection of functional unit and identification of specific problems regarding LCA of energy sector.

Session: 8, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:18
Flash presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00152] The role of Life Cycle Assessment to measure progress towards the Circular Economy
by Corona B., Shen L.

The circular economy (CE), as opposed to the current linear economy, is seen as a sustainable economic system where the economic growth is decoupled from the resources use, through the reduction and recirculation of natural resources. In the shift towards the CE, quantifying the circularity of products and services (or their contribution to the CE) is crucial in designing policies and business strategies, and prioritizing sustainable solutions based on evidence. This study explores the role of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in assessing the circularity of products and services. A review was made on current LCA case studies assessing progress in the CE, attending to the following aspects: the goal of the studies, the modelling and allocation approaches, the assessment methods used, and their alignment with the CE goals. The results indicate that LCA is one of the most used and comprehensive tools to assess CE. However, the multifunctional and multidimensional nature of the CE strategies impose methodological challenges that are still not solved.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00156] Early-stage LCA of a novel fuel flexible CHP technology based on biomass gasification and a SOFC
by Moretti C., Ruhlin V.C., Corona B.

To mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, more efficient energy production is necessary. Combined heat and power systems (CHPs) are a key technology to reach such an objective, due to its higher energy efficiency than the separate production of heat and electricity. These environmental benefits can be enhanced by using a versatile energy source, such as biomass. The H2020 Hieff-BioPower project is developing an innovative medium-scale biomass CHP technology based on biomass gasification combined with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This technology shall reach a high gross electric and overall energy efficiencies (40% and 90% respectively) and is expected to achieve equal-zero gaseous and PM emissions. This study analyses the expected environmental performance of producing heat and electricity with such a technology, using environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The analysis investigates the cradle-to-gate impacts considering different biomass feedstocks and including the manufacturing of the main power plant components (gasifier, gas cleaning unit, SOFC). The preliminary results indicate environmental improvements when compared with state of the art technologies such as internal combustion engines and organic Rankine cycle CHPs.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00109] Improvement of calculations of the total characterization factor in the Usetox model including a regional approach
by Belyanovskaya A., Laratte B., Perry N., Baranovskaya N.

The USEtox model as one of LCIA models is an instrument to characterize the human toxicity impact. The model measures the intake of metals by population with meat products. The USEtox is the only model including geographical separation and wide database with organic and nonorganic chemicals. However, the USEtox does not provide any regional information, as ecological or geological specifications of areas included into the model. There is also a lack of data about metals concentrations in the database. Current investigation proposes an approach to reduce these limitations using results of bioindication studying– chemical composition of pork meat samples. Results of bioindication express assessing and forecasting changes in biotas under the anthropogenic influence locally in 3 settlements of “Central Asia” district. We extrapolate them into the USEtox model database, to extend it with concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Zn and As in the meat of pork. Characterization factor is proposed to assess their potential toxicity in soil and air in the region “Central Asia”.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:15 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)
[CEST2019_00083] Conventional and organic rice production in Northern Italy: What is the (environmentally) best?
by Bacenetti J., Orsi L., Parolini M., Cavaliere A.

In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, the environmental performances of rice production in Italy considering both conventional rice production (CRP) than organic rice production (ORP) was evaluated. Inventory data were collected by means of surveys in 69 farms located in Northern Italy, 20 for ORP and 49 for CRP.
The best cultivation practice depends on the evaluated impact category and by the specific cultivation practices. On average the impact for ORP are higher than for CRP but, above all for ORP, there is a wide variability of the environmental performances.

Session: 2, Room: B, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:00 to 09:15
Oral presentation in Life cycle analysis (LCA)