Wastewater treatment

[CEST2019_00938] Performance evaluation of a flat sheet self-forming dynamic membrane (SFDM) for municipal wastewater treatment containing organic micropollutants
by Millanar-Marfa J.M.J., Borea L., Castrogiovanni F., Napodano P., Hasan S.W., De Luna M.D.G., Belgiorno V., Naddeo V.

Membrane bioreactors gained increasing interest due to its small footprint and high efficiency. Nonetheless, high capital and operational cost of MBR remains a challenge. With the aim to reduce MBR cost, this study used Dacron mesh to form a dynamic membrane that serves as a substitute to conventional membranes to treat municipal wastewater containing organic micropollutants (OMPs). The SFDM system obtained COD, NH4-N and PO4-P removal of 95%, 47% and 14%, respectively.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00937] Novel Polyethersulfone (PES) Alpha-Zirconium Phosphate (α-ZrP) Ion Exchange Mixed Matrix Membranes for Effective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
by Abdulkarim E., Ibrahim Y., Hasan S., Naddeo V., Banat F.

In this study, novel polyethersulfone (PES) alpha-zirconium (α-ZrP) ion exchange mixed matrix membranes were fabricated via phase inversion method using nano-sized alpha-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP-n) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as dispersant nano-additives in the dope solution preparation. The impact of α-ZrP-n loading on the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) from wastewater effluent was studied by varying the α-ZrP-n concentrations from 0.1 up to 1 wt.% while fixing the PES concentration at 10 wt.%. The composite membranes surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle. The pure water flux was also determined under vacuum filtration while the removal of all heavy metals was carried out via the inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The optimal results incorportaing 0.3 wt.% α-ZrP (i.e. Z-2 membrane) showed 98, 86, and 99% removal efficiency of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II); respectively, and a water flux of 3013.5 L/m2h (MH) that was higher than that reported using the pristine PES membrane (i.e. 985 LMH). These findings suggested that the use of α-ZrP nanoparticles in membranes offers significant potential in heavy metal removal with a considerable high water flux.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00903] An Integrated Approach For The Assessment Of Constructed Wetlands Operational Efficiency, Using Both Chemical And Biological Data.
by Dailianis S., Charalambous N., Foiniris S., Komodromou A., Cocilovo C., Dormousoglou M., Lyberatos G., Ntaikou I.

The present study evaluated the operational efficiency of a constructed wetland (CW) located at Andritsaina/Krestena municipality (Western Greece, Peloponnese, Greece), using a battery of tests and bioassays. Specifically, raw WWs entering the CW basins with broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia (raw-WWs) and biologically treated WWs effluents ending up in the adjustment tank were randomly collected in October, December 2018, and January 2019. Thereafter, freshwater algae (i.e., Chlorococcum sp., Scenedesmus sp.), invertebrates (i.e., Thamnocephalus platyurus, Brachionus calyciflorus), higher plant species (i.e., Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba) and human lymphocytes were treated with WWs for determining critical toxic endpoints in any case. All data were further interpreted with physicochemical parameters, like conductivity (Cond), COD (total and dissolved), total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS), commonly measured in both raw- and treated-WWs samples. The results showed that almost all chemical parameters measured in treated-WWs were lower than those occurred in raw-WWs, and significantly related with the obtained critical toxic endpoints in all cases. Those preliminary findings give rise to the importance of using a battery of bioassays as useful tools for assessing CWs treatment process efficiency thus contributing to the environmental sustainability and human health.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:51 to 12:54
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00904] Systems Improvement And Energy Savings Program For The Existing Conventional Extended Aerobic Treatment Of Domestic Wastewater In Compliance Of DAO 2016-08 New General Effluent Regulations
by Maceda Ma., Cleofas O.

This is a system improvement and energy savings program for a Sewage Treatment Plant treating wastewater coming from a shopping mall operation. Wastewater from shopping mall is considered domestic wastewater, which needs a big volume of water, and produced big amount of wastewater. Generators of wastewater such as in this case, from shopping mall, is mandated to be responsible for the collection, treatment of wastewater, and the ultimate disposal of the treated wastewater, as well as the separated solids, in a manner that is safe, and within the new effluent regulations as provided under DENR Administrative Order No. 2016-08. Under this new effluent regulations which only takes effect on June 2016, shopping mall is now mandated to meet stringent parameters to comply, particularly on Nitrate, Phosphate, Ammonia and Surfactants. To comply the new general effluent regulations, there were innovative solutions and energy programs implemented, resulting of savings in water and energy.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00810] Isolation and identification of microorganisms that can biodegrade organic compounds which are present in olive mill waste.
by Antwnopoulou P., Vyrides I., Stasinakhs A.

Isolation of microorganisms that can biodegrade organic compounds which are present in olive mill waste and more specifically microorganisms that can survive at high phenol concentrations was studied in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory for three months in the Department of Environmental Science and Technology in the Cyprus University of Technology. Firstly, liquid crops were created, then the samples were cultivated in solid crops (with phenol as the sole carbon source) and at last isolation and purification of the samples were performed and the single colonies were replicated in liquid crops to check their performance. Eight single microbial culture will be sent to Macrogen The Nederlands Research Center for recognition and identification.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:48 to 12:51
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00800] An Investigation into Impact of Heavy Metals in Soil
by Karkain R., El Sergany M., Diamadapoulos E., Moussa M.

The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental risks associated with the wastewater reuse with respect to six metals; cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the city of Dubai. Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) is used for landscape irrigation. Samples of soil and control soil as baseline measurement were collected to calculate the contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), metal pollution index (MPI), degree of contamination (CD) and modified degree of contamination (mCD) of heavy metals in soil. The results revealed that the values of the CF were very high, the PLI and MPI were high, the CD was very high, and the mCD was ultra-high.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00806] Treatment of High Strength Industrial Wastewater utilizing Canna X generalis in a Simulated Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland Set-up
by Heidi A., Ballesteros F., Esguerra G.

In the Philippines, DENR has mandated the regulation of oil and grease, COD, and TSS for automotive parts manufacturers. Wastewaters from industries have varying pollution strength that requires efficient treatment systems of combined physical, biological, and chemical processes. However, these methods tend to be labor intensive and costly. Constructed wetlands have become a popular treatment method for industrial wastewater because of its simplicity requiring less technical expertise compared to other technologies. In this study, four vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands composed of cylindrical drums with diameter of 30 cm and height of 90 cm were designed to treat industrial wastewater in parallel experiments. The four constructed wetland units had various set-ups (with & without Canna X Generalis, with & without zeolite, with & without air vent) to determine the effect of the treatment efficiency. Water quality samples were collected from each unit, and were analyzed for pH, ORP, TSS, COD, aluminum, oil and grease. The findings show that the constructed wetland with zeolite and air vents demonstrated higher removal efficiency in comparison to a constructed wetlands without these features. The removal efficiencies registered 93.35% and 90.67% for COD and TSS, respectively.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:00 to 09:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00763] Waste water treatment with agricultural by-products: An investigation with date pit powder
by Alghamdi A.A.

Water is very precious and inevitable for every living objects including human beings. Huge quantity of waste water is generated by us every day and there are various methods to regenerate safe and pure drinking water from these waste waters. Researchers all over the world are continuously trying to develop low cost filtration system using various adsorbents. Agricultural waste products are being used as adsorbents and gaining momentum because of various attractive factors such as easy availability, low cost, non-toxic nature etc. In the present investigation, date pit (date stone) powder is used an adsorbent to remove Pb (II). The analysis revealed that date pit powder can be successfully used in a column filtration set-up to remove Pb (II) ions from the waste water streams with high efficiency.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:00 to 16:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00761] Anaerobic MBR technology for treating municipal wastewater at ambient temperatures
by Plevri A., Mamais D., Noutsopoulos C.

An innovative way to treat municipal wastewater and produce energy at the same time is anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic processes are traditionally used for high-strength wastewater or municipal sludge treatment and only recently have been applied for the treatment of low strength municipal wastewater. To investigate the performance of anaerobic wastewater treatment through the incorporation of membrane technology, a 40 L laboratory scale Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) with a flat sheet submerged membrane along with a 40 L reservoir for trapping and measuring the biogas produced have been installed and set in operation. The operation of the AnMBR unit with real wastewater is an important step for data generation, since most of the studies related to AnMBR have been performed with synthetic wastewater offering no insight to problems that a real-world unit might face. This paper presents the start-up of the unit and operating results from the first phase of laboratory scale experiments, conducted at temperatures between 14-18oC. More experiments will be held in the near future at different temperatures and also different operating conditions in order to examine the efficiency of the reactor under realistic conditions, by identifying the possibility of integrating the technology into WWTPs.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:45 to 16:00
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00712] Nitrification inhibition test of salty wastewater containing Tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS), formaldehyde and methanol using salt-adapted nitrifying bacteria, an alternative test method to ISO method
by Chhetri R.K., Kokkoli A., Karvelas S., Andersen H.R.

Nitrification inhibition test is a standard method to test if the chemicals or samples received by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are toxic to nitrifying bacteria in the wastewater treatment plant. Nitrification inhibition test based on ISO method ISO9509 or modified ISO9509 method (REFLAB method) cannot differentiate the toxicity between salt and toxicant in the sample, which is unrealistic for regulation of salty wastewaters that are treated in WWTPs with sufficient volume to dilute salts to harmless levels. To overcome the toxicity due to salinity to the nitrifying bacteria, salt-adapted nitrifying bacteria were grown on the Z400 MBBR carriers. The aim of this work was to validate and compare the nitrification inhibition of samples measured from salt-adapted nitrification inhibition test method (DTU method) with REFLAB method. The new salt-adapted nitrification inhibition test was validated by investigating the statistical uncertainty on the use of new test method with the existing REFLAB method.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00679] Treatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Utilizing Cogon Grass (Imperata cylindrica) in a Subsurface Flow System Constructed Wetland in Zamboanga Cıty, Philippines
by Flores R., Adil J.

Natural treatment systems are gaining preference as a wastewater treatment option since it is a form of ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change. The study investigated the performance of a laboratory scale horizontal, subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW) planted with cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) in reducing the pollutant concentration of slaughterhouse wastewater in Zamboanga City, Philippines. Results showed that the mean efficiency of BOD5 removal at seven (7) and 14 days detention time were 94.49 percent and 89.31 percent, respectively; while the average TSS removal efficiency were 97.8 percent and 99.9 percent, respectively. Statistical analysis of the BOD5 removal efficiencies revealed significant difference; which means that higher BOD5 removal is achieved at seven (7) days detention time. Analysis of the TSS removal efficiencies likewise revealed a significant difference, proving that longer detention time results in higher suspended solids removal. Therefore horizontal, SSFCW planted with cogon grass can be used to treat slaughterhouse wastewater at seven (7) days detention time. A pilot study is recommended to validate laboratory-scale finding. Future reseach should also investigate the performance of horizontal, SSFCW using other wastewater sources, different parameters, other endemic hydrophytic grasses, and to consider meteorological and climatological factors.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:30 to 15:45
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00658] Fouling-resistant membranes prepared via fully biobased layer-by-layer self-assembly
by Shamaei L., Khorshidi B., Ayranci C., Sadrzadeh M.

A fully biobased layer-by-layer deposition method, containing kraft lignin and chitosan as the polyelectrolytes, was employed to improve the anti-fouling properties of polyethersulfone membrane. Results revealed that the water in air contact angle decreased from 70° ± 2° for the pristine membrane to 34° ± 1° for the modified double-bilayer membrane, indicating enhanced hydrophilicity. The synthesized film was ultrathin and caused a slight decrease in permeation flux of the modified membrane compared to the pristine membrane. Additionally, the deposited film showed excellent stability after 6 hours running water test using a dead-end filtration cell.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:00 to 15:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00659] Hybrid zero liquid discharge (ZLD) membrane/chemical process for the treatment of oil sands produced water
by Mohammadtabar F., Khorshidi B., Sadrzadeh M.

In this study, the applicability of a hybrid chemical/membrane process for the treatment of the boiler blow-down (BBD) water from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operation was explored. For the chemical pre-treatment prior to the membrane filtration, another waste stream of SAGD, i.e., ion exchanger regeneration wastewater (IERW), was used as a coagulant to reduce the concentration of organic matter and silica. The proposed method involved the direct use of the NF process for the purification of BBD water, followed by an integrated IERW conditioning and nanofiltration (NF) to purify the concentrated retentate. This process could operate with a zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) configuration and it was found to be an efficient method in terms of water recovery and water product quality.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:15 to 15:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00598] Start-up of the Nitrogen Removal Process in an Anaerobic Up-Flow Reactor Inoculated with Aeration Tank Sludge
by Wijaya I.M.W., Ribeiro H., Soedjono E.S., Slamet A., Teixeira C., Bordalo A.A.

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been considered a promising alternative to the traditional nitrification/denitrification process to remove nitrogen without using external carbon source. The start-up of the anammox process was performed in a stirred anaerobic up-flow reactor seeded with aeration tank sludge, and fed with medium containing ammonium and nitrite (1:1). The reactor was running consecutively for 369 days, with an initial instability period that lasted 117 days, resulting in nitrite removal and nitrate accumulation. In view of this, the reactor stopped being fed with nitrite, which led to a nitrate decrease in the effluent. Afterwards, a 140 days transition period was followed by a 112 days stable period. In the end, the average ammonium removal was 53.8 % in the transition stage, slighting decreasing to 45.6 % in the stable period, while there was no nitrite in the effluent. Preliminary microbial assessment showed the presence of an anammox community in the reactor related to Candidatus ‘Brocadia fulgida’. The next challenge will be the assessment of eventual shifts on the microbial community structure and composition during the entire process.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:45 to 12:48
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00585] Anaerobic ammonium nitrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction in psychrophilic conditions
by Przywara L.

Investigations of simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulphate were carried out in anaerobic laboratory bioreactor - upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The process was operated in psychrophilic conditions. Temperature was maintained constant at 20±2°C. Synthetic wastewater containing ammonium chlorine and sulphate magnesium was used as the feed for the bioreactor in experiment. The concentration range of ammonium and sulphate in the wastewater were kept at 22-27 mgNH4-N/L and 80–130 mg SO4-S/L, respectively. About 80% of the sulphate entering the reactor was removed from the liquid phase, of which 30% appears as S–S2- in the effluent. During sulphate conversion were formation also S-H2S in the biogas and elemental S. Raman spectroscopy (RS) were performed to confirm the presence of sulphur in the sludge. Owing to the reduction sulphate and oxidation ammonium, about 20% nitrogen initially present in the influent was removed appearing as N2 in the gas phase.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:00 to 13:03
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00591] UN(K)NOWN Project: Development of Anammox Microbial Inocula to Improve Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in Wastewater Treatment
by Ribeiro H., Soares-Santos V., Machado A., Costa-Dias S., Wıjaya I M.W., Salgado P., Bordalo A.A., Teixeira C.

The discovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) revealed the existence of a shortcut in the classic nitrogen cycle where ammonium is converted directly to dinitrogen gas. The anammox process can be used to develop more cost and energy-efficient sustainable nitrogen removal systems comparing to those existing today. However, large-scale applications are limited due to the slow growth rate of anammox bacteria described so far. The UNNOWN project proposes to explore the presence of these bacteria in different ecological niches, and select the appropriate seeding sludge starter as the inoculum for reactors. Anammox biomass is enriched in batch experiments as well as in laboratory scale bioreactor systems, such as Up-flow Biofilter, and Anaerobic Baffled Reactor. Afterwards, microbial community composition, optimum growth conditions, and nitrogen removal efficiency are studied. The ongoing project aims to investigate new anammox bacteria, and the relation between community structure and process activity. Ultimately, it is planned to develop microbial inocula to be used as seeding sources for anammox reactors, and to contribute to a wider
application of anammox process in wastewater treatment.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:03 to 13:06
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00552] Coal fly ash zeolites as adsorbents for effective removal of heavy metals and dyes from contaminated waters
by Zgureva D., Boycheva S., Behunová D., Václavíková M.

In this study, fly ash zeolites (FAZ) of Na-X type were synthesized by alkaline atmospheric aging. FAZ with a specific surface value of 280 m2/g was tested for removal of contaminants from waters in comparison to unconverted FA. The adsorption efficiency of FAZ toward methylene blue from water solutions is over 60 % for the studied concentration levels. The removal efficiency of FAZ toward Cd2+-ions reaches 98 % and it is not affected by the pH from 3.0 to 7.0. The obtained results reveal that FAZ are suitable adsorbents in water remediation systems.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00560] Magnetite nanoparticles activated coal fly ash zeolites with application in waste water remediation
by Boycheva S., Miteva S., Trendafilova I., Zgureva D., Václavíková M., Popova M.

In this study, fly ash zeolites (FAZ) were synthesized by a double stage fusion-hydrothermal treatment. Magnetite nanoparticles were added to FAZ between the two synthesis stages. The obtained nanocomposites (MNP-FAZ) and their parent FAZ were studied with respect to their surface characteristics and were tested for decontamination of polluted waters. The experimentally obtained equilibrium adsorption isotherms were described applying different computational models.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:30 to 16:33
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00539] Characterization of activated carbon prepared from Aegina pistachio shells for Hg removal
by Karagianni E., Chatzitheodoridis E., Papassiopi N.

Preparation of activated carbon from agricultural bio-products is a promising way to produce useful adsorbents for Hg removal. In this study Aegina pistachio shells were used as raw materials and the activation was carried out by impregnation with ZnCl2 and heating at 750oC under N2 atmosphere. Three different levels of impregnation ratios (IR) were used for the chemical activation procedure, i.e. IR 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 grams of ZnCl2 per gram of raw material. Further sulfurization treatment of the chemically activated carbons was also examined as a means to improve the adsorption capacity of activated carbons toward Hg. Overall six different types of activated carbons were produced and characterized regarding their physicochemical properties and their capacity to adsorb mercury. The specific surface area was determined by the BET method. The amount of acidic and basic function groups was determined with Boehm method and the surface chemical characteristics of activated carbons were investigated using the FT-IR spectroscopic method. Preliminary Hg adsorption experiments indicated that the sulfur modified carbons were much more efficient for the removal of Hg from aqueous streams compared to simple chemically activated carbons.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00483] Unbiodegradable soluble COD removal from industrial wastewater by a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor
by Carucci A., Cappai G., Camedda C., Erby G., Puggioni G., Milia S.,Tocco G.

In this study, plastics industry wastewater (PIWW) characterized by high total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (tCOD and sCOD, up to ~2200 and ~1500 mg/L, respectively) and remarkable unbiodegradable soluble COD (usCOD, 508±224 mg/L, 31±14% of tCOD) concentrations was treated at laboratory scale using a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). Interestingly, the MBBR showed average tCOD, sCOD and usCOD removal efficiencies of 26±6, 32±11 and 36±11%, respectively, which were comparable to those achieved by the coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment currently applied at full-scale. Such results encourage the application of MBBR as a cost-effective option for the removal of recalcitrant soluble organics from PIWW and other similar industrial wastewaters.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00488] Influence of microbial fuel cell integration on organic matter and nutrient removal in a vertical constructed wetland for wastewater treatment
by Thais G., Juan Pablo M., Vidal G.

The combination of constructed wetlands (CWs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has emerged in recent years with the purpose of enhancing wastewater treatment efficiency of CWs while simultaneously generating electricity. Taking the above into account, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of MFC integration on organic matter and nutrient removal in a constructed wetland. The results showed that NH4+-N concentration reduced from 66.5 ±9.4 at day 0 (influent) to 4.5±0.4 mg/L and 7.03±3.93mg/L for the integrated system and control system, respectively. In terms of the NH4+-N removal efficiency, an enhancement of the nitrification rate (Ni) was observed when MFC was integrated in VSSF (120.6±1.5 mg/m2 d for control system and 166.8±2.3 mg/m2 d for integrated system). The average COD removal efficiencies were 85.36±2.67% and 94.2±5.9% in the CW and CW-MFC, respectively, obtaining a voltage close to 250 mV. The maximum power density generated was 4.75 mW/m2. In conclusion, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH4+-N in VSSF were 85.4 and 88.4%, respectively, while in CW-MFC were 94.3 and 93.2 %. Therefore, the integrating of a MFC into CW does not have adverse effects on the capacity of the CW to efficiently domestic wastewater treatment.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:06 to 13:09
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00426] Feasibility of combined anaerobic-aerobic system for textile wastewater contained C. I. Acid Red 88 dye treatment: HRT effects and functional resilience
by Gadow S.I., Li Y.-Y.

An integrated continuous anaerobic–aerobic system has been employed as the treatment for synthetic textile wastewater contained C. I. Acid Red 88 dye. A laboratory scale of upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) flowed by activated treatment was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 24, 12, 6, and 3 h. the system showed high performance on the removal of color and COD within the HRT ranged between 24 and 6 hrs. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the UASB was reached to 86.6% and up to 97% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. The system performance appeared to be more resilient to the inapt decrease in the HRT. The experimental analysis results indicated that the maximum methane yield was 13.2 mmol CH4 g COD-1 d-1 at HRT 6 h, and the system is expected to have a better economic performance under HRT 12 h.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00434] Membrane distillation treating a petrochemical reverse osmosis concentrate
by Venzke C.D., Giacobbo A., Rodrigues M.A.S., Bernades A.M.

This study investigated the applicability of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process for the treatment of a petrochemical industry effluent, intending to recover water from the concentrate produced by reverse osmosis (RO). In DCMD, the experiments were accomplished with a feed and permeate-inlet temperature of 60 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Four commercial microporous hydrophobic flat-sheet membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), with or without a support layer, laminated or not with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), having different thickness, pore size, effective porosity and contact angle, were evaluated. All evaluated membranes presented a very satisfactory water recovery ratio (~90%), getting high rejection factors (above 99.5%) for all analysed parameters and producing a high-quality water having a very low electrical conductivity (around 2 μS cm-¹). The membrane with BHA in its composition presented the lowest permeate flux decay that occurred gradually along the experimental runs, representing a productivity loss of only 14% for a water recovery ratio near 90%. These results indicate that this membrane has a low propensity to fouling and scaling when treating a wastewater with characteristics like the ones evaluated in this work.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:24 to 16:27
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00450] Method Development for the Determination of Heavy Metals such as Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc in Aluminum Alloys by ICP-OES, based on wastewater analysis method
by Gkogkaki V., Karageorgis A., Pantazis K.

The determination of Heavy Metals such as Copper, Iron, Manganese and Zinc in Aluminum alloys is usually achieved following ASTM E3061-17 Method. Alternatively, for time and cost saving, the laboratory’s ΕΝ ISO 11885:2009 method for wastewater analysis was appropriately modified producing satisfactory results. Parameters such as matrix effect, wavelength, plasma conditions, calibration standards and dilution conditions of the alloy were examined for the accurate measurement of these elements in Aluminum alloys (e.g. CRMs, according to their Certified Values).

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:27 to 16:30
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00405] Quality Improvement of collected rain water by elimination of micropollutants to sea site settlements with the use of new technologies
by Kollias P.S., Kollias V.P., Kollias S.

The continuous increase of water needs in sea site settlements, created the need to collect rain waters in order to use them, after their treatment to achieve the necessary quality improvement. To realize that we need at first to mark the water sources in the neighboring area of the serviced district, in order to collect the necessary water quantities, for the covering of the existing necessities. One part of the sustained pollution is removed from the water treatment installations but the rest remains in the natural medium. Further treatment includes the abstraction of pollutants by natural mechanisms, like biodegradation, photolyse, votalisation, adsorption, degradation, fixation from vegetables. Further water treatment will include addition of rain water coming from roofs and other waters from country side areas, when enough water quantities are available. The water will be treated with conventional methοds, in order to succeed the foreseen quality and finally get transferred to ZONES of REGECTION WITH SUITABLE VEFETATION (ZRV) for the elimination of micropollutants, as well as other pollutant traces.

Session: 19, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:15 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00417] Use of the microalgae Chlorella Sorokiniana for municipal wastewater treatment: batch experiments
by Kotoula D., Iliopoulou A., Irakleous-Palaiologou E., Gatidou G., Aloupi M., Fountoulakis M.S., Stasinakis A.S.

Batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the use of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana for the treatment of different types of municipal wastewater (raw sewage, anaerobically treated wastewater, aerobically treated wastewater) and investigate the role of light and addition of ammonium on its growth. All experiments were conducted in triplicates and lasted for 7 days. Several parameters were monitored during the experiments in order to check the experimental conditions (pH, temperature, DO), the growth of biomass and the removal of major pollutants (COD, NH4-N, PO4-P, NO3-N) from wastewater. According to the results, the target microalgae can be sufficiently developed in raw and anaerobically treated sewage, while it can remove an important part of the major pollutants found in raw sewage, reaching up to 94%, for COD, 99% for PO4-P and 94% for NO3-N. The addition of NH4-N in aerobically treated does not enhance growth of biomass, while the application of mixotrophic conditions (16h light/8h dark) enhanced microalgae growth and major pollutants’ removal.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:21 to 16:24
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00337] Aerobic degradation of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) from effluents of semiconductor industries: kinetic studies of laboratory and pilot experiments
by Innocenzi V., De Michelis I., Ippoiıto N.M., Mazziotti Di Celso G., Prisciandaro M., Veglio F.

Aerobic degradation of effluents contains tetramethylammonium hydroxide molecules (TMAH), coming from an electronic industry, was studied at laboratory and pilot scale. At the first, the preliminary experiments were conducted using a lab scale reactor inoculated with activated sludge coming from urban wastewater treatment. Several batches have been performed on real effluent, in which TMAH concentration was about 1800 mg/L. The results showed that after acclimation, the microorganisms removed 99% of TMAH in seven days. Kinetic studies have provided the following kinetic parameters able to describe the trends of TMAH, ammonium ions and biomass concentration as a function of time in the reactor: KS = 0.8 g/L; µmax = 0.042 h-1. Then, in a second phase the experiments were conducted at pilot scale using a pilot plant realized within Life Bitmpas project (LIFE15 ENV/IT/000332). The plant has three biological reactors of 1 m3 and it is possible to feed up to 25 L/h of TMAH effluent. The experiments were conducted in a continuous mode and the results showed that in 8 days the total degradation of TMAH was 99%; moreover, from kinetic study have been determined the following kinetic parameters: Ks = 0. 83 g/L and µmax = 0.0074 h-1.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00356] Tuning of an advanced control system on a membrane process for tannery wastewater purification and chromium recovery purposes
by Marchetti A., Stoller M.

Tannery wastewater represent a hazard to the environment due to its high content of chromium. Conventional methods to purify this wastewater stream are available, but not capable to recover back chromium to the tannery process. Membranes appears to be a promising technology to achieve both targets of water purification and recycling of chromium.
The economic feasibility of the here proposed process relays on fouling minimization, in order to maximize the life of the employed membrane modules and as a consequence to keep the operational costs low. The use of an advanced control system capable to predict fouling incurrence and to adapt the operating conditions to sub-boundary ones appears to be the best strategy.
In this work, the proposed process, including the advanced control system, was simulated within HYSYS. By means of performed simulation runs, it was possible to avoid irreversible fouling operating conditions, still obtaining an adequate level of tannery wastewater treatment and relevant chromium recovery rates. Both the predictive and the adaptive part of the control system exhibits high reliability. The developed strategy appears therefore promising to encourage the use of membrane technologies for this application with feasibility from a technical and economic point of view.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00302] Printing ink wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation
by Papadopoulos K.P., Argyriou R., Ekonomou C.N., Tatoulis T.I., Tekerlekopoulou A.G., Vayenas D.V.

Packaging paper wastewaters, stemming mainly from the dyeing sector of the production process (where printing inks are utilized), are characterized by large concentrations of organic matter, deep, strong color and almost zero biodegradability factor. These attributes, in combination with the presence of some toxic compounds (heavy metals, VOCs etc.) make further treatment necessary, before releasing the wastewater to the environment.
The present study deals with the treatment of these effluents using Electrocoagulation (EC). During the EC process, metallic species are electrochemically dissolved in the wastewater solution, resulting in coagulation, flocculation and subsequent separation of the pollutants via flotation or sedimentation. The efficiency of this method was evaluated, by examining the organic matter removal and decolorization of the wastewater under a wide range of operating parameters (current density, initial pH and electrode material). Moreover, the physical and chemical phenomena taking place during the process, as well its environmental footprint were investigated.
It was observed that this process is efficient under most of the operating conditions used, as the chemical oxygen demand removal ranged between 65 and 85 % and all the experiments managed high color removal, ranging between 98 - 100%. Additionally, secondary pollution was minimized, as concentrations of soluble metallic species remained below the regulated limits.

Session: 1, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00304] Biotreatment of Brewery Wastewater Using the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp.
by Papadopoulos K.P., Economou C.N., Moustaka-Gouni M., Tekerlekopoulou A.G., Aggelis G., Vayenas D.V.

Brewery wastewater is generated from the beer brewing process in large amounts (4-8 m3 per m3 of beer produced). Brewery wastewater consists of high organic matter content, significant nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and easily biodegraded compounds. Even though most biological treatment technologies applied to brewery wastewaters include the use of bacteria, cyanobacteria (photosynthetic microorganisms) constitute attractive means for sustainable and low cost wastewater treatment producing high biomass concentration. In this study, the capacity of a filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. for the pollutants removal from brewery wastewater was investigated coupled with objective to determine its proteins, carbohydrates and lipids content after wastewater treatment. The experiments were conducted in batch mode under non-sterile conditions in lab-scale photobioreactors. The removal rates of nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphates, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were almost 49.2%, 100%, 57.1%, 57.9% and 24.3%, respectively, within the first 7 days of cultivation. The maximum biomass concentration was 350 mg/L, while the biomass produced was consisted of approximately 53.5% carbohydrates, 20.2% proteins and 10% lipids. Therefore, the treatment of brewery wastewater using cyanobacteria species could be effective, while the cyanobacterial biomass could be used in numerous fields for diverse applications.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:15 to 16:18
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00307] Treatment of various agro-industrial wastewaters using electrocoagulation
by Benekos A., Papadopoulos K., Triantaphyllidou I.-E.,Tekerlekopoulou A.G., Vayenas D.V.

Greece, although not over-industrialized, faces issues connected to pollution of its water resources, as conventional wastewater treatment methods often proved ineffective at removing some pollutants such as suspended solids and pigments. Therefore, the need of developing efficient, modern anti-pollution techniques for the preservation of a viable environment is urgent as ever. Electrocoagulation (EC) is one of these widely studied, promising methods. EC consists of generating coagulant species by electrolytic dissolution of sacrificial anode materials triggered by electric current applied through the electrodes, leading to the removal of different pollutants.In the present study EC was studied for the treatment of various agro-industrial wastewaters (table olive, cheese whey and printing ink),examining its efficiency under a wide range of operating parameters (current density, initial pollutant concentration, pH, electrode material).According the results EC proved efficient in most of the experimental sets performed, achieving significant removal efficiencies of color and organic matter. Also,acost analysis of the process that was conducted to evaluate the economic feasibility of the process showed that EC can be a viable and realistic choice for agro-industrial wastewater treatment.

Session: 13, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:18 to 16:21
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00262] Electrodialysis in zero liquid discharge systems for sustainable brine management
by Jiříček T., Havelka J., Doleček P., Cakl J., Kroupa J., Křivčík J.

According to the latest environmental requirements, zero liquid discharge must be considered in all modern manufacturing processes. In principle, solid waste can be achieved only by evaporation plus crystallization, and therefore reverse osmosis is usually applied to decrease the operation expenses by pre-concentrating the evaporator feed.
However, reverse osmosis can generally only achieve concentrates of about 70 to 75 g/kg, still leaving a significant gap before saturation of common salts is reached. Electrodialysis can double this concentration, thus cutting the evaporator operating expenses or even eliminating the evaporator at all, providing the concentrate can be fed directly to crystallization.
In this work, an array of the most common brines was tested on a lab-scale electrodialysis unit, and salt transport, electricity consumption and electric current efficiency was evaluated. No performance drop in either scale-up factor was observed at the maximum concentrations, suggesting that under right operating conditions, integrated membrane processes should significantly decrease the evaporator costs and provide economic feasibility of zero liquid discharge process in waste brine treatment.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:54 to 12:57
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00273] The Use of Biochar from Waste Wooden Biomass for Removal of Emerging Pollutants
by Žgajnar Gotvajn A., Carvalho A.P., Marinšek M.,Kalčikova G.

The aim of presented research is to use biochar produced from waste biomass for removal of veterinary antibiotic tiamulin from model wastewater. Produced biochar was activated using different chemical methods (KOH treatment under various conditions). It was characterised using BET method for the determination of the pore size distribution and pore volume fraction as well as SEM microscopy. Results indicated importance of biochar activation to achieve applicable adsorption characteristics. In 180 minutes of batch experiment up to 78% of tiamulin was removed. Kinetic parameters were also determined by Lagergren model while for determination of adsorption isotherm Freundlich model fitted obtained data. It was concluded, that adsorption characteristics of produced and activated biochar are comparable to those of commercially available activated carbons and thus its feasibility for removal of tiamulin from model wastewater was confirmed.

Session: 1, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00294] Pretreatment of antibiotics-contaminated waste biological sludge by ozonation
by Bosevski I., Kalčikova G., Derco J., Žgajnar Gotvajn A.

Ozonation was studied as a pretreatment method for a waste biological sludge, contaminated with large amounts of globally used antibiotics; tiamulin, levofloxacin and amoxicillin. At the concentrations of over 100 mg L-1, these antibiotics were found to inhibit biogas production (up to 50%), which means, that the molecules would pass the anaerobic digestion system unchanged. Ozonation of sludge, contaminated with antibiotics, not only removes inhibitory effects, but also improves overall biogas production for 10% or even more, depending on the dose of the oxidant applied in the pretreatment.

Session: 25, Room: A, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:57 to 13:00
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00235] Monitoring Of Treated Domestic Waste Water Quality
by Poulli K., Rossidou E., Kozakou S., Michael N., Demetriou E., Christofidou M., Aletrari M.

Cyprus is experiencing severe water supply deficiency. Particularly in summer months the situation is aggravated mainly due to low precipitation, high evaporation and increased demands for irrigation and tourisms. The use of treated wastewaters for environmental purposes such as recharging aquifers, agricultural irrigation and municipal landscape is highly contributing in the scarcity problem. In Cyprus there are 8 large urban plants and 25 small community plants for domestic waste treatment. Various chemical analysis including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, anions, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, toxic metals, pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contacted to ensure the quality of the treated wastewater. Instrumental techniques like ion chromatography, ICP, GC-MS and HPLC-fluorescence are used to determine ions, metals, pesticides and PAH,'s. In this study, the results of these analyses are presented for treated urban wastes. Heavy metals, boron, pesticides and PAHs are found in low concentrations ranging from low micrograms to milligrams per liter.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:30 to 12:33
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00245] Impregnated Resins as Novel Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions
by Zawierucha I., Nowik-Zajac A.,Kozlowski C.

In this study the performance of impregnated resin was evaluated as the sorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions. It was observed that the lead removal efficiency depends on the sorbent dose, initial concentration of metal ions, pH of water and the contact time. The results of batch experiments showed the highest removal efficiency of Pb(II) ions from water (>99%) at L:S = 100:1 for the following conditions: initial concentration of metal ions of 10 mg/dm3, pH = 6, and contact time of 60 min. The experimental equilibrium data were also described by sorption isotherms. Impregnated resin as novel sorbent has been found efficient and easily regenerable and can be used several times.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:33 to 12:36
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00251] Challenges in biological treatment plants: the approach of zero sludge waste
by Theofanidis S.A., Samiotis G., Bellos D., Pekridis G., Tsioptsias C.,Amanatidou E.

The current trend in operation of biological Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is the minimization of sludge wastage due to its labor and cost intensive management process. Minimization of sludge can be achieved by increasing the solids retention time (SRT) in a WWTP, up to an almost complete retention of solids. This operational modification can induce problems that compromise effluent quality, such as: (a) excessive accumulation of sludge, (b) Dissolved Oxygen availability, (c) changes of C:N:P nutrient ratio, (d) changes of microbiological and morphological characteristics of biomass and (e) insufficient treatment. By imposing specific WWTP design and operational conditions, the SRT related problems can be resolved. The current study presents results based on monitoring five full scale industrial and municipal WWTPs, operating towards “complete solids retention”. The results showed that under high SRT and after the modification in the design and operation of a WWTP, successful microbial manipulation can be achieved. This leads to (i) excess sludge minimization, up to 95%, (ii) good sludge settling characteristics, with SVI < 120 ml/g, (iii) sufficient wastewater treatment, with removal efficiencies, up to 99%, 98% and 99% for COD, TN and TP respectively.

Session: 1, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00254] Removal of Toxic Metal Ions Through Polymer Inclusion Membranes Containing Macrocyclic Ligands as Carriers
by Nowik-Zajac A., Zawierucha I., Kozlowski C.

More strict environmental regulations on the discharge of toxic metals require developing various technologies for their removal from polluted streams. The separation of toxic metal ions using immobilized membranes with doped ligands, due to their high selectivity and removal efficiency, increased stability, and low energy requirements, is promising for improving the environmental quality. Cellulose triacetate-based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with macrocyclic ligands as ion carriers, were studied for their ability to transport of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of concentration of ion carrier, pH of source aqueous phase, stripping agents on the effective transport of toxic metal ions have been assessed. All studied parameters were found to be important factors for the transport of toxic metal ions. The initial flux was determined for different conditions of transport through polymer inclusion membranes. The newly developed PIM containing macrocyclic ligands were found to be stable and highly permeable. Moreover, the prepared membranes could be potentially suitable for multiple use process for efficient removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions.

Session: 7, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:36 to 12:39
Flash presentation in Wastewater treatment
[CEST2019_00169] Phosphorus and nitrogen recovery from wastewater in the form of struvite: alternative magnesium sources
by Primikyris G., Siahos K., Vavouraki A., Putnis C.V., Natsi P.D., Koutsoukos P.G.

Recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen from municipal and other types of wastewater may be achieved through the direct crystallization of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, Mg•NH4•PO4•6H2O). Wastewater deficiency in magnesium makes it necessary for the external addition of magnesium to make up for the supersaturation needed. In the present work we have tested artificial seawater and saturated with respect to calcined magnesia (MgO) aqueous solutions as magnesium sources, as both sources are low cost and readily available. Both the spontaneous precipitation and the seeded crystal growth have been investigated at constant supersaturation (pH 9.0- 10.0, 25°C). Seawater accelerated the precipitation of struvite and narrowed the stability domain of the supersaturated solutions. Saturated magnesia solutions were shown to broaden the stability domain of the struvite supersaturated solutions. Magnesia suspensions were also tested with respect to their ability to induce crystallization of struvite. Measurement of the kinetics of crystal growth by potentiometric methods maintaining solution supersaturation, and AFM observations showed that the solid particles in magnesia saturated suspensions, provide favorable substrate for the overgrowth of struvite in combination with the appropriate supersaturation conditions.

Session: 1, Room: A, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Wastewater treatment