Session 10 - Heavy metals in the environment

The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of Cd, Ni and Pb in the aboveground and underground parts of Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Her), as well as the effect on the plant’s content of essential oil. A pot experiment was conducted using four different levels of Cd, Ni or Pb, in five replications. Analyses of the aboveground tissues were conducted after 10 and 14 weeks of exposure. At the end of the experiment, aboveground and underground biomass of the plants was air dried until constant mass. Samples were analysed with ICP for their heavy metal content. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistilation and GC-MS analyses were carried out. Results show metal- and pollution level- dependent accumulation of the three metals in the roots and the aerial parts of the plants. Essential oil profiles show rather minor effects of heavy metal exposure on the essential oil composition.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:45 to 13:00
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment
[CEST2019_00816] Arsenic uptake in bean and cabbage grown in silty and sandy soil and irrigated with arsenic containing water
by Sandil S., Dobosy P., Kröpfl K., Füzi A., Óvári M., Záray G.

The uptake of arsenic was studied in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) in an open greenhouse pot culture with sand and silt soil as substrate. The plants were irrigated with water containing sodium arsenate at concentrations 0.05 and 0.2 mg As L-1. The total arsenic concentration of the different plants parts was determined by ICP-MS, following microwave-assisted acid digestion. The As concentration in the bean was in the order: root>shoot>bean pod and in cabbage: root>leaves. Increasing As concentration in the irrigation water resulted in decreased edible biomass production in bean, while in cabbage the edible biomass production increased. At the highest dose (0.2 mg As L-1) if a person consumes about 450g of bean then their As intake will be: 0.9 µg from bean grown in sand and 0.72 µg from bean grown in silt. If 450g of cabbage is consumed then the As intake would be: 22.5 µg from cabbage grown in sand and 12.15 µg from cabbage grown in silt.
Considering the WHO recommended MTDI limit of 2 µg kg-1 body weight, both bean and cabbage can be consumed at the highest As treatment level of 0.2 mg L-1.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:21 to 12:24
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) are elements and contaminants of historical and emerging concerns in coastal environments. Although Cu is considered essential for living organisms, it is bioactive in a narrow range of optimal concentrations. Hg and Pb have no known biological role and are considered toxic towards organisms. Marine consumers incorporate and bioaccumulate these metals mainly through trophic pathways, which are then important to delineate. Since recently, metal stable isotopes are promising to trace origin and processes of the contamination of marine matrices, including biota.
As part of the present study conducted within the SCOTTTI and Pollusols programs, we merged integrated trophic markers (carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, lipid profiles) and metal stable isotopes to investigate i) the trophic transfer of Cu, Hg and Pb within a model food web of a French human-impacted coastal area (Toulon Bay, NW Mediterranean); and ii) the potential sources of food web contamination. Whenever possible, samples included sediment, suspended organic matter, size fractions of plankton, filter-feeding bivalves (mussels, oysters) and planktivorous fishes, collected at different seasons. Metal- and species-specific patterns throughout the food web were observed, highlighting the role of biological/physiological processes on the observed metal levels and isotope distributions.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:24 to 13:27
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Cobalt (Co) has significantly increased its concentration in the environment in the last years due to anthropogenic and industrial activities. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of chronic cobalt chloride (CoCl2) exposure on transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) in various organs of immature mice. Pregnant ICR mice were subjected to daily dose of 75 mg/kg body weight CoCl2x6H2O 2–3 days before they gave birth and treatment continued until day 25 after delivery. The compound was dissolved and administrated with drinking tap water. Age-matched mice obtaining regular tap water were used as a control group. On days 18 and 25 pups were sacrificed, blood plasma, livers, kidneys and spleens were obtained and processed for analysis. The results show altered tissue-specific TfR expression in the studied organs of CoCl2-treated immature mice. A significant time-dependent increase in tissue Co levels was observed. Our data on the effects of chronic CoCl2 exposure on TfR expression contribute for the elucidation of the complex regulatory mechanism of iron homeostasis.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:15 to 13:18
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Semiconductor manufacturing involves distinct processes that generate complex wastewater streams that require treatment before it proceeds to the main wastewater effluents. The present study utilized fluidized-bed crystallization to recover resources from the combined synthetic wastewater of chemical-mechanical polishing and etching processes. The study aims to determine the operational conditions to achieve optimum recovery and removal. Maximum removal and granulation of ~99.0% and 96.07% were realized at pHi range of 7.75 – 8.0 and [PO43-]/[Co2+] ratio of 2.0, respectively. Phosphate concentration in etching stream was reduced from 14.0 mM to [PO43-]d of 1.02 mM at optimal conditions. Uniform crystal size of 0.7 mm dimater was attained at hydraulic rentention time of 15 min, upflow velocity 34.38 – 40.11 m h-1 and surface loadings of 1.18 kg Co2+ m-2 h-1. The granules recovered were cobalt phosphate octahydrate mineral Co3(PO4)2.8H2O as main products as analyzed through XRD analysis. Moreover, SEM-EDS analysis showed ~34.0% Co, ~21.0% P and ~45.0% O having a petal-like structure.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Lead (Pb) directly targets testicular spermatogenesis and also the sperms in the epididymis inducing reproductive toxicity. In our study we compare the effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid (Sal) on testis morphology, sperm count, Pb content, endogenous levels of calcium, copper, zinc and iron in testis of mice, subjected to Pb intoxication. Both chelating agents considerably reduced Pb content in the testis compared to the toxic control. The administration of Sal ameliorated Pb-induced alterations in Cu homeostasis and significantly restored endogenous Ca and Zn concentrations levels unlike DMSA. Testicular morphology of Pb-intoxicated mice recovered to control after salinomycin treatment but sperm count remained 21% lower compared to the untreated mice. The results suggest the potential application of salinomycin as antidote for treatment of lead intoxications.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:18 to 13:21
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

The purpose of the present research was to study the ability of urban trees’ leaves to retain heavy metals. Three major heavy traffic streets of Thessaloniki were chosen. Two tree species were studied: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Catalpa bignonioides Walt. and 360 leaf samples were collected from 20 trees. The selection of the species was carried out according to their leaf morphology and silvicultural characteristics. Also, for each tree were measured: breast diameter, tree height, crown height, crown’s diameter and then crown volume was calculated. Two treatments were applied (washed and unwashed leaves). The following heavy metals were measured: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) and the metal concentration was determined with the use of ICP-OES inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals were significantly related to the species for the heavy metals: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb). Catalpa bignonioides captured the highest concentrations of heavy metals. Finally, the morphological characteristics of leaves and not the silvicultural characteristics of species are the factors that influence their ability to retain heavy metals.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

In this study total mercury concentrations in earthworms and in different soil types at the same locations from the surroundings of four boreholes were analyzed by ICP-MS method, as a part of a comprehensive monitoring of the eco-system in the vicinity of the natural gas production and treatment plant Molve in northern Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of mercury in the collected samples from 2009 to 2019, monitor its changes over a last ten years period and determine the bioaccumulation of total mercury in earthworms from the soil. During the last ten years total mercury concentrations in earthworms (boreholes Molve 9-12) ranged within 0.118 and 0.675µg gDW-1 depending on the location and time of sampling, while total mercury concentrations in different soil types at the same locations ranged within 0.020 and 0.515 µg Hg g-1 of soil. The calculated mercury bioaccumulation factor ranged between 0.6 and 16.9. Comparing our results with those from the previous research period and also with results published in available literature it can be concluded that investigated area near Molve belongs to low mercury contaminated region.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:12 to 13:15
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Lignite mining in the Oropos Neogene basin (North Attica), especially in the areas of Milesi and Markopoulo, operated since last century and ceased in the late 1960’s. Piles of complex waste material consisting of lignite tailings and waste rocks are dispersed in the area between the above mentioned mining sites. Environmental characterization of waste piles is performed by applying leaching tests (EN12457, EN15875) as well as bulk geochemical analysis. Mineralogical study revealed that pyrite is the dominant sulfide phase in local wastes. The high sulfur content and low paste pH and Net Neutralization Potential, i.e. values < -20 CaCO3 kg/t in most analyzed samples, all clearly indicate that the waste is prone to acid generation. The analysis of water leachates showed high concentrations in Ni, Zn and Cd, exceeding the EU regulatory limits for the non-hazardous wastes. The preliminary results suggest that the lignite waste pose a potential threat for ground water contamination close to the waste disposal fields due to acid generation and heavy metal mobilization from the lignite matrix or the waste rock.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:09 to 13:12
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Two commercial activated carbons (F400 and RWE) were tested for their Hg° retention capacity, in order to elucidate shortcomings that still exist, with respect to the oxygen functional groups. The number and the nature of oxygen containing functional groups were altered by heating under H2 at 1100°C or treatment with HNO3. The activated carbons tested were found suitable for mercury retention and the observed differences are attributed to their diversified characteristics (surface chemistry and pore structure). Acidic activated carbons promptly adsorb Hg°, since it behaves as a Lewis basis. When oxygen groups were almost completely removed, by H2 thermal treatment, the Hg° retention ability became practically zero. Acid treatment increased both the number and the acidic oxygen groups; resulting in increased Hg° retention. The Langmuir isotherm equation was used to describe the adsorption (physisorption and chemisorption) of Hg°, occurring in activated carbons. The fitting curve of the Langmuir equation and the correlation coefficient R2 indicate quite fair linear approximation (R2 = 0.9773). Reflecting the spontaneous nature of the adsorption reaction, the Gibbs free energy change calculated is negative (-23.5 kJ/mol and -30.9 kJ/mol, for the RWE and F400 respectively).

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:06 to 13:09
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

The lead pollution of natural environments is considered a severe issue due to the high toxicity and mobility of lead ionic species. The present study deals with the removal of Pb(II) ions from synthetic wastewater by means of iron-based coated hazelnut shells, used as packing material in lab-scale fixed bed columns. The biomass was coated through the direct precipitation of nano-iron oxide nanoparticles and demonstrated a notable Pb(II) sorption capacity. In detail, the continuous experiments showed a Pb(II) removal efficiency of 80% at an initial Pb(II) concentration of 50 mg/L, a bed height of 6 cm and an inlet flowrate of 4 mL/min. Different operating parameters values were varied (initial Pb(II) concentration, inlet flowrate and bed height) at pH>pH of zero charge of the packing material. The obtained breakthrough curves were fitted by suitable dynamic models, to obtain the regressed model parameter values for a subsequent pilot-scale process simulation and scale-up.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Precipitation and dissolution processes of calcium carbonate in natural aquatic systems, are responsible not only for the regulation of pH but also for the transport of pollutants to and from sediments. Of interest in these processes, is the role of the presence of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. In the present work the mechanism of calcium carbonate formation from supersaturated solutions in the absence and presence of zinc (II) was investigated at 25°C, pH 8.50, 0.1M NaCl, at conditions of constant supersaturation. Kinetics analysis suggested that the precipitation of calcium carbonate both in the absence and in the presence of zinc over a concentration range 10-30 M, is controlled by surface diffusion. The presence of zinc in the supersaturated solutions reduced the rate of crystal growth of the calcite seed crystals and the rate reduction was smaller the higher the solution supersaturation. The inhibition was probably due to the adsorption of zinc species to the active sites of crystal growth of the seed crystals. Provided that the adsorption could be described according to the Langmuir model, the assumption was justified both by fitting kinetics data of calcium carbonate crystal growth and by independent equilibrium adsorption studies.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Pollution of freshwater from industrial, domestic and agriculture sources is one of the major factors responsible for the decline of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations in Europe. Biomarkers responses (bioaccumulation, glucose content, cytogenetic and behavioral endpoints) elicited by the most common metal contaminants at Maximum-Permissible-Concentrations (MPC: Zn – 0.1, Cu – 0.01, Ni – 0.01, Cr – 0.01, Pb – 0.005 and Cd – 0.005 mg/L) accepted for the inland waters in EU was assessed in fish after 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 or 28 days of exposure. Experimental studies were performed using whole mixture approach and by reducing environmentally realistic concentration of single metal in the mixture by 10-times (represents background exposure in the aquatic environment). Bioaccumulation of metals was assessed in gills, liver, kidneys and muscle tissues. In the most of the investigated tissues, steady-state metals concentrations were reached within 14 days. All metals have attained steady-state in muscle. Metal mixture at MPC and 10-fold reduction of single metal in the mixtures significantly affected cytogenetic, behavioral endpoints, blood glucose content and bioaccumulation of several metals in analysed tissues of fish. Therefore, discharges of metals at MPC into the aquatic environment can lead to health problems of juvenile S. salar.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

The aim of this study was to investigate the response of photosynthetic system and growth of summer barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye brome (Bromus secalinus L.) to different cadmium concentrations effect under elevated CO2 in atmosphere.
The growth and response of photosynthetic system were evaluated. The results showed that barley was more sensitive to Cd impact under all investigated CO2 concentrations. Increasing CO2 concentration increased photosynthetic rate and decreased the negative effect of Cd. The effect of Cd increased stomatal conductance of barley under elevated CO2, while for brome it decreased. Photosynthetic pigments of barley also were more sensitive to Cd effect, but the losses were lower under elevated CO2.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:00 to 13:03
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment

Concerning toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistence in the aquatic environment, six metals such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd are attributed to priority hazardous substances in many countries throughout the world (Water Framework Directive 2008/105/EC; US EPA 2009). In this study, time-dependent and tissue-specific induction in geno- and cytotoxicity was determined in haemocytes and gills cells of Anodonta cygnea after treatment with six metals (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Cr-0.01, Ni-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, at Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC), accepted for the inland waters in EU) mixture at various time points (1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days). The highest genotoxicity levels in gill cells and haemocytes were determined after 4 days exposure. After 2 days treatment in gill cells of exposed mussels, there was found the highest and statistically significant induction of cytotoxicity level. Neurotoxicity studies have shown, that prepared metals mixture has ability to inhibit AChE activity in mussel’s hemolymph after 4 days and 28 days exposure. Time-depended metals accumulation in A. cygnea gills and statistically significant relations between Cu, Cd, genotoxicity (in gill cells) and cytotoxicity (in gill cells) demonstrates bioavailability of used trace metals for the bioindicator and time-related DNA damage.

Session: 10, Room: D, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:03 to 13:06
Flash presentation in Heavy metals in the environment