Session 12 - Solid waste management

In Greece, large quantities of by-products are produced annually from urban and industrial activities among them very high olive oil production by-products. Thus, the interest of the scientific community has focused on the utilization of olive oil waste mainly as a feed using various microorganisms and fungi, of which only a small number can biodegrade the waste. In the present study the effect of solid fermentation of olive mill waste (OMW)-straw (in various proportions) mixture using the LGAM P123 strain of Pleurotus ostreatus under the conditions of experiments on the quality of the olive pomace is investigated. LGAM P123 strain was grown in solid and liquid substrates as well as in a mixture of the hay and olive-pomace substrate. The results obtained from the experimental procedure resulted in an increase in the proportion of proteins in straw and OMW mixtures. In addition, the content of fibrous matter in the fermented samples showed a significant decrease whereas total polyphenols appeared an extremely strong decrease.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:51 to 13:54
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Multilayer Packaging Waste (MPW) represents the largest fraction of packaging waste and is mainly composed of multiple plastic films laminated with Al foil ( (2018). Packaging waste statistics). The most produced multilayer film is based on the different polymers, such as polyester (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) as main components, and an aluminum layer (European Commission JRC Technical reports). According to Eurostat Statistics Explained, the amount of packaging waste generated in the EU between 2007 and 2016 was estimated at 79 ± 1.25 million ton per year. Because of that, this type of waste is difficulty recyclable, its representative one of the biggest polluter in the environment. Research aims were to recover valuable materials from MPW in order to reduce the waste stream and reduce environmental pollution.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 14:00 to 14:03
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In this work, with the support of the local municipality, we’ve collected for each highland region the data showing: the number of population, existence of the main sources causing waste, the quantity of the dumpster, the frequency of the waste removal with the relevant technic etc. Based on all these data by applying our methodology, we count a probability of existence of the uncontrolled landfills that can exist in the particular region. We also use the pictures from a drone.
In the present research we also made a comparative analysis of our theoretical conclusion concerning the particular rural areas and the results of the real data received after the expedition on the same place.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:54 to 13:57
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In the laboratories the special research were carried to determine the pollution level in the samples collected, which due to the direct impact of these types of landfill sites on the surrounding areas, are often the main polluters of environment. The pollution conditions were studied based on modern methodology and techniques (ISO methods).
The received results allow concluding:
•The pollution is different for the West and East Georgia. The analysis of the water and soil samples showed that the territories and water bodies adjacent to the landfills located in western Georgia are relatively less polluted than similar areas in the East Georgia;
•In the analysed samples concentrations of various polluting ingredients (heavy metals- Pb,Cu,Zn,Cd and biogenic elements- total coli forms, Fecal streptococci, and Е. coli) determined from the soil and water samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:57 to 14:00
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Development of in situ preparation method of porous low-density carbon materials from industrial waste is important. Alkali earth metal doped porous carbon materials can serve as a support for CO2 mineralization in pores to generate the final carbonate enriched porous carbons, MCO3-PC, as a composite for potential applications in CO2 capture and sequestration. Herein we report on developing mineral carbonization technology using porous carbons from vacuum residue to generate products that are best suited economically for CO2 sequestration. Activating of vacuum residue (VR) using activation reagent as Ca(OH)2 and MgO mixed with KOH gives a porous structure and metal particles that can react with CO2. The study of the synthesized material showed the presence of nonporous carbon and alkali earth metal ions.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Co-Pyrolysis of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polystyrene (PS) was carried out in a semi-batch glass reactor system. Effects of temperature and feedstock ratio on pyrolytic product yields (gaseous, liquid and solid residue) and chemical composition of the liquid were investigated. All experiments were performed with 15 g feedstock in 25 mL/min nitrogen atmosphere and 60 min duration at specified temperature. Temperature was changed from 470 to 620 °C with 50 °C break by utilizing PID controller which was setted 10 °C/min heating rate. PS in the feedstock was varied as 0, 33, 67, 100 wt. %. The liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. When PS and LDPE were mixed equally by weight at 570 °C, liquid product yield was found 85 wt. %. More PS adding in the feedstock did nearly not affect this value. It was detected that hydrocarbons which were aromatic, cyclic and aliphatic formed the peak areas’s majority of the co-pyrolytic liquid. Specifically styrene was found dominant component in that liquid. Besides that, it was observed that with increasing temperature, peak areas’ percentage of alkanes decreased while temperature rising didn’t affect olefines’ peak areas.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Alongside increasing use of single-use plastics, especially in developing countries is increasing mismanaged solid wastes. There is great need for economically viable processes such as pyrolysis that can convert waste to energy resource. Coconut husk, which is also an abundant waste in tropical countries is a good material for co-pyrolysis with single-use plastic, as both have high energy content. Thus, this study determines the potential of plastic laminates and coconut husk pyrolysis as feedstock for production of pyrolystic oil. It aimed to determine the effects of feedstock mixture composition (percent coconut husk: (32%, 42%, 51% coconut husk), process temperature (500oC, 600oC, 700oC) and particle sizes (1cm, 3cm, 5cm) on the percentage yield, gross calorific value and energy value of the output pyrolytic oil. Using RSM response optimizer, optimum oil yield is 32.5%, which is at feedstock of 50.42% coconut husk, 5-cm partcle size and 700oC. Feedstock of 32% coconit husk, 5-cm particle size and 700oC will give the highest HHV of 34.1142 MJ/Kg. Maximum energy of 6.0032 MJ will be obtained at feedstock of 51% coconut husk, 5-cm particle size and 700oC. ANOVA analysis showed that all the three parameters tested are significant factors affecting oil yield and energy yields. Temperature and percentage coconut husk have greater influences on yield, HHV and energy value than particle size.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

This contribution describes the experience of the Province of Brescia, public body responsible for managing applications for landfill authorization, and its collaboration with the University of Brescia for the specific activity of risk analysis applied to landfills. After a reference to the current national legislation and a summary of the technical documents available for the topic (guidelines and instructions drawn up by technical bodies), the technical-preliminary approach applied by the Province of Brescia is outlined. This is complemented by a detailed description of the methodological approach followed for the evaluation of Risk Analysis documents and of the critical aspects that emerged within several administrative procedures. Finally, some issues on the topic of interest that emerged within a technical task force, involving Lombardy Region and its provinces, are introduced.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Europe is the most visited region in the world, the destination for half (49.8%) of the 1.24 billion international tourist arrivals in 2016. Almost half (47.4%) of European tourist visits occurred in coastal regions, defined “on the basis of and consist of local administrative units or municipalities that border the sea, or have at least half of their total surface area within a distance of 10 km from the sea.” In 2015, 9 out of 10 nights spent at Tourist Accommodation Establishments (TAE) in Malta, Cyprus, Greece, Croatia and Denmark were located at coastal areas, while the overall flow of tourism in the EU is primarily concentrated on Mediterranean coastal regions. Within this research, the concept of urban metabolism will be used to understand and analyses how tourist areas that are influenced by tourism use their resources and how touristic activities are linked to waste management and resource conservation. Furthermore, a waste compositional technique has been performed in order to relate the waste production in coastal areas as well as the level of the pollution link to the sea and moreover to evaluate the existing infrastructure and waste management plan.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:30 to 13:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Nowadays, beneficial management of plastic and rubber waste from different sources and environmentally friendly ways of recycling is becoming an increasing challenge. A possible solution for that problem could be to produce plastic composites usually consisting of heterogeneous phases. That fact and the interface between phases, and characteristics of components all play important roles in development of properties of end-product. By using a compatibilizing additive a chemical bridge can be created between the plastic composite components requiring reactive functional groups. In case of carbon nanotube containing composites particular attention must be paid to the formation of suitable interactions between the dispersed material and the matrix that can be carried out by impregnating the surface of carbon nanotubes with dispersed additive in hydrocarbon solution or in aqueous surfactant containing composition. We have applied O/W typed emulsion techniques for carbon nanotube impregnation, bearing in mind the importance of environmental regulations for the conditions of treatment. Compatibilizing additives have been classified by various analytical measurements (total acid number, saponification value measurement, size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR measurements, adhesive strength, conditions of emulsification) to identify the possible structure of the additive and to study interactions with the reinforcing material.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:45 to 13:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Over the past 50 years demand for plastics drastically increased worldwide resulting in plastic wastes causing serious environmental problems. The main market sector of european plastics industry is the packaging industry most of which is polyolefins and poly(ethythylene-terephtalate). Polymer blends based on waste resources can solve the issues of recycling. We have studied rheological and tensile properties of three types of PET/engineering thermoplastic blends (PET/PC, PET/PA and PET/ABS) produced with different processing techniques. Miscibility of components of blends is limited leading to weak mechanical properties such as low tensile strength and/or elongation at break. Due to that phenomenon compatibilizing additives are also required. As compatibilizing additives olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives have been used in our experiments. Structure of additives differed from each other both in ratio and length of carbon chains of compounds linked to maleic-anhydride groups . Blends have been studied with PET content ranging from 10 % to 90 %. As an outstanding result we have managed to achieve improving mechanical properties, for example almost 400 % growth was observed in elongation at break of extruded 80/20 PET/PA blends in the presence of 0.2 % compatibilizing additive compared to the sample without additive, meanwhile its strength has also improved.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:00 to 13:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

One of the most commonly used methods of recycling of spent zinc-carbon (alkaline) batteries is hydrometallurgical leaching with sulfuric acid. The technology is highly efficient and enables the recovery of the majority of deposited metals. Unfortunately, it also generates highly acidic wastewaters containing significant amounts of sulfates and metal ions, which have typically been considered off-balance material.
The aim of the study was to develop
a biotechnology for the recovery of metals (in the form of sulfides), based on the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB reduce sulfates to sulfides, which bind with metal ions to produce an insoluble precipitate. To maximize the efficiency of metal sulfide biorecovery by SRB, the acidic wastewaters were pretreated with sodium hydroxide and then with biogenic ammonia (produced by urea-degrading bacteria) to reach pH 5.0. Further alkalinity was generated during organic compound decomposition carried out by SRB in cultures containing appropriately diluted, pretreated leachates.
As a result of the proposed biotechnology, metal ions and sulfates, were almost completely removed from the leachate. This way new raw materials: metal sulfides and treated (industrial-quality) water with circumneutral pH were produced.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:48 to 13:51
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

This paper investigates the recovery of the main metals (La and Al) present in a spent fluid cracking catalyst (FCC) through the hydrometallurgical processes of leaching and selective precipitation. Complete La leaching (99±1)% was achieved under microwave-assisted leaching with the use of 1 M HCl and a liquid-solid (L/S) ratio of 5 for 90 s. Since the main impurity presented in the leachate was Al, an initial process was developed to selectively recover Al by alkaline precipitation. At pH 6, almost total Al (98%) was precipitated with purity of 88.7% while La co-precipitation was insignificant (2.8%). The second approach consisted of La recovery as lanthanum oxalate [La2(C2O4)3], using low oxalic acid concentration (0.1 M). The results indicate high La recovery (99.7%) with very high purity (99.9%) when applied on the solution pre-purified and free of Al. Results strongly demonstrated that the simple and universal approach created is beneficial in terms of high metals recovery and final product quality from spent FCC without the need of highly concentrated chemicals and time-consuming processes.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:45 to 13:48
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Recycling of post-consumer packaging wastes involves a complex chain of activities, usually based on three main stages, that is: i) collection from households or recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW), ii) sorting and, finally, iii) mechanical recycling. This paper investigates sorting logics, hyperspectral imaging based, to design, implement and set up with the specific aim to perform an automatic separation of paper, cardboard, plastics and multilayer packaging.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:15 to 13:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

In this paper a European Union and National funded project activities are described. The project “BIOWASTE” promotes the transfer and application test of innovative technologies (PAYT and ACUs), aiming to enhance managing efficiency in solid wastes related issues, such as source separation schemes and treating systems emphasizing in organic wastes. The proposed systems will be introduced in three different types of touristic municipalities, Municipality of Yermasoyia (intensified touristic area with prolonged touristic summer), Municipality of Katerini (less intensive touristic area, with short summer period directly related with the sea cost) and Municipality of Probistip (less intensive touristic area with a very large number of small and decentralized communities with significant number of tourists). Ιn the framework of the BIOWASTE, each municipality will: a) develop a detailed Pay as You throw (PAYT) system, b) provide the appropriate equipment for the implementation of the PAYT system (weighing units for waste collection trucks, bins with identification systems), and c) install an Autonomous Composting Unit (ACU) at the sites of a hotel or hospitality units or decentralized communities to receive the bio-waste produced directly without the need to collect them. ACUs are small closed integrated composting units, with zeroing of effluent and expanding liquids.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management