Session 23 - Energy technologies and sustainability

[CEST2019_00857] Mass and energy balances of sewage sludge pyrolysis in a lab rotary kiln
by Mendoza L., Gómez A., Rincón S.

The aim of this work is to study the influence of the main parameters of sewage pyrolysis in a rotary kiln on the product distriburion and energy balances. An indirectly heated rotary kiln at a laboratory scale was used (4 kg/h). An increase in the final temperature causes the reduction of the total condensable products and the non-condensable gas fraction increases. The residence time of the volatile phase has an important influence on the secondary reactions to increase the non-condensable gas with low tars content. These results contribute also a valuable input to perform LCA.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00353] Improving aquaculture environmental footprint utilizing offshore renewable energy
by Lilas T., Antoniou E., Kotrikla A., Vatistas A., Dagkinis I.

The main environmental impacts of aquaculture include eutrophication, chemical pollution and harm to sensitive marine ecosystems. At the same time, the required energy leads to high emissions of greenhouse gases. Offshore wind turbines are a sector of renewable energy that grows rapidly. Offshore wind turbines can be combined with aquaculture units to meet their energy needs, saving fuel and reducing their carbon footprint. However, there are many difficulties in installing aquaculture units in existing offshore wind parks (e.g. small water depth). A new paradigm is to deploy floating wind turbines and aquaculture at open sea. Open sea aquaculture is more environmentally friendly, but has not been developed due to increased supply chain cost and harsh sea state conditions. The aim of this study is to propose a renewable energy system that can cover the energy needs of an open sea aquaculture unit. The system consists of a multiuse floating structure that accommodates wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, batteries, energy management system, fish monitoring devices and automatic feeding system. In this way the frequency and cost of in-situ visits, will be reduced. The above combination makes open sea aquaculture development more attractive and at the same time improves its environmental footprint.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00224] Production of activated carbon from oil palm shells via physical activation with H2O and its characterization for use in aqueous phase
by Alvarez-Villanueva D.M., Rincon Prat S.L.

Oil palm shells (OPS) are a solid residue of the extraction of palm oil having excellent characteristics for production of activated carbon. OPS worldwide production amounts to 17.214 ton (2018) from which Colombia participates with 364 ton. Oil palm shells were first carbonized in a horizontal oven under N2 atmosphere until 850 °C for 30 min. Carbonized samples were than submitted to physical activation with steam in the same horizontal oven. A variation of process parameters was performed. Activation temperatures of 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C were studied. Residence time varied between 60 and 400 minutes. H2O flow rates between 1 a 5 ml / min were used. 50 g of carbonized oil palm shells were used for each experiment. The influence of the process conditions on pH, soluble water content, extractable acid content, methylene blue index, BET surface area from N2 adsorption and density were determined. Visual inspection through scanning electron microscopy and determination of surface functional groups through infrared spectroscopy were performed. The obtained activated carbons show suitable characteristics for its use in aqueous phase. Results obtained were useful to determine its optimal production conditions.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00200] Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity production in the Czech Republic – case-study of lignite combustion and hydropower
by Štefanica J., Zakuciová K., Kočí V., Šerešová M., Vlček Z., Vitvarová M., Opatřil J.

Environmental impacts of various types of energy production are compared in the scope of an ongoing national research project “Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Production”. The project is using the LCA method to compare the potential environmental impacts of selected energy sources throughout their whole life cycle. The energy sources are representative for the energy grid of the Czech Republic. The inventory data used for the LCA are based on case studies of selected Czech power plants. Presented article is showing the preliminary results – the comparison of environmental impacts of two electricity sources. Lignite power plant and a hydroelectric power plant are compared. Only the impacts of plant operation are compared so far, the construction and decommissioning are not included in the current analysis.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00034] Long Term Solids Handling Alternatives for New York City Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs)
by Halim D., Ramalingam K., Fillos J., Katehis D., Orpianesi M.

New York City Department of Environmental Protection, (DEP), owns and operates 14 water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) which treat a combined average dry weather flow of 57 m3/sec. DEP in association with the City College of New York, (CCNY), has embarked on a long term project to assess thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of the combined sludge to enhance production of anaerobic digester gas, (ADG), and take advantages of improve reduction of volatile solids and sludge dewatering. This paper will focus on the initial phases of thermal hydrolysis.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:15 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00022] Hydrogen production from cotton wastes by mean of dark fermentation
by Sołowski G., Konkol I., Shalaby M., Cenian A.

Dark fermentation of textile wastes is discussed in the paper. In the experiment were used cotton wastes. Before fermentation the cotton was hydrolyzed using 0.1 M of HCl. The inoculum was pretreated using heat shocked for 0.5 h at temperature of 105°C. The fermentation was carried out under conditions: load 5 g/l, pH in the range 5 by 0.1 M of HCl, and oxygen in small quantities was added. The oxygen flow rates (OFR) was 0.008 ml/h. The fermentation was carried out at temperature of 40 °C for one day. In reactors with pretreated inoculum (pH 5) biogas was detected and its content (hydrogen carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) were determined. Methane was not produced during experiment. The volume of hydrogen for process performed at temperature 40°C 0.168 dm3 of at biogas content 43%.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:00 to 09:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability