Mussel harvesting areas in Slovenia are monitored for contamination with E. coli as pollution indicator bacteria. According to contamination levels, areas are classified into A, B or C category. An A category means that there is less than 700 E. coli MPN/100 g of the shellfish flesh and intervalvular fluid. Mussels from the areas with the established A category are placed on the market directly, whereas shellfish from areas classified as B or C category undergo a depurating process. The aim of our research was to gain detailed insight into the contamination with E. coli as well as with some other microorganisms and heavy metals. We also took into account possible factors affecting the contamination of seawater and shellfish (e.g. marine currents, rainfall, tides). During a one-year period 34 samplings at three shellfish harvesting areas and one wild area were carried out (306 samples). Higher levels of contamination were observed in colder parts of the year (spring, winter) and at the time of heavy rainfalls. Correlation between E. coli number in mussels and enterococci in seawater was statistically significant. To ensure safety of the mussels it is therefore important to carry out increased number of samplings at critical periods of the year.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

A miniaturized optical immunosensor for the simultaneous label-free determination of bacteria in drinking water is presented. The sensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) integrated on silicon chip along with their corresponding broad-band light sources. The transmitted spectra of the MZIs were continuously recorded through a spectrometer. The spectral shifts caused by changes of the effective refractive index on the sensor surface due to bioreaction were converted to phase shifts through discrete Fourier transform. For the analysis, the different MZIs of the chip were biofunctionalized with the respective S. typhimiurim and E. coli membrane antigens. Then, mixtures of bacteria solutions with anti-bacteria antibodies were pumped over the chip followed by reaction with biotinylated anti-species specific antibody and streptavidin. The assays were fast (10 min), sensitive (LODs <2X102 CFU/mL), accurate (recovery 86-115%), repeatable with intra- and inter-assay CVs <5% and 8%, respectively, and the chip could be regenerated/reused for at least 20 times. Considering the low detection limits achieved in combination with the short analysis time and the small chip size, the proposed immunosensor could find wide application for bacteria detection in drinking water at the point-of-need.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Consumer practices are considered to be the main source of human exposure to phthalates. The aim of our study was biomonitoring of low molecular weight phthalate (LMWP) and high molecular weight phthalate (HMWP) metabolites in Slovak pre-school (n=100; age range 1-6 years) and school age children (n= 96; age range 7-15 years) and relate exposures to consumer practices. We used high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for spot urine sample analysis to determine concentrations of 21 phthalate monoesters, metabolites of 11 LMWP and HMWP diesters. Median concentrations of ∑LMWP (177.32 µg.L⁻¹) were close to the ∑HMWP (169.83 µg.L⁻¹) metabolites. We observed significantly (p≤0.05) higher concentrations of 5 LMWP and 4 HMWP metabolites in school-age compared to preschool-age children. Data showed several statistically significant associations (p≤0.05) between concentrations of phthalate metabolites and the consumption of food and beverages. Interestingly, we observed for all HMWP metabolites (except mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate MEHP) and 1 LMWP metabolite (mono-methyl phthalate MMP) significantly lower concentrations in children who used at least 2 personal care products in comparison to non-users. Unexpected results suggest that potential routes of exposure differ from consumer practices included in our study.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:33 to 12:36
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Over the past few decades, honey products have been found to contain residues of a variety of contaminants. Among them pesticides residues resulting from treatments applied either inside beehives or in the agricultural environment have become an issue of great awareness. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous quantification of amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate, which are the most frequently used insecticides to control varroatosis and ascospherosis in hives. Analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography on a C18 reversed-phase column with UV/diode array detection (HPLC-UV/DAD). An isocratic elution system was used with acetonitrile-water (80:20 v/v) containing 0,01 M acetic acid as the mobile phase while the selected compounds, amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate were detected at 249, 233, 313 and 254 nm, respectively. Overall recovery rates from honey samples ranged from 78% (bromopropylate) to 103% (amitraz), with correlation coefficients >0,99 in all cases. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 commercial honey samples.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:36 to 12:39
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Road transport causes one fifth of the EU's total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), which are especially high in cities. A suggested solution to this situation is the introduction of electric vehicles (EV). However, evidence from European countries shows that, the sales of EVs are low in comparison to other vehicles, especially without any governmental support. Our pilot study, conducted in Wrocław (Poland), shows that car purchasers in Poland are aware of the difference between pure electric and hybrid vehicles (HEVs). However, the potential for sales of EVs and HEVs still seems limited as most car purchasers buy on the second-hand market. Our study shows that consumers have a generally positive opinion about EVs. However, they see strong barriers in adopting EV as none of 52 respondents decided to buy an EV.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Iodine deficiency in humans is a well-known environmental health problem in several regions of the world. Fruits and vegetables have been proven to be an effective way to increase iodine intake for humans by iodine enriched edible plants.
In our study plant physiological processes of potato and bean plants cultivated on three different soils (sandy, silty sand, silt) applying potassium iodide containing irrigation water in concentration of 0.10 and 0.50 mg/L were investigated. After the harvest the plant parts (root, aerial parts and fruits) were dried and their mass were determined. The homogenized plant parts were mineralized by microwave-assisted acidic digestion. Iodine and essential element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.
In case of bean fruits the iodine addition (0.50 mg/L) resulted in considerable reduction (20-50%) of biomass, while the relative change of potato mass amounted to only -10% - +10% depending on the soil type. Results showed, that applying 0.50 mg/L iodine concentration in the irrigation water, the highest iodine concentration in edible parts of bean and potato plants were 1.6 mg/kg (silt soil) and 1.8 mg/kg (sandy soil), respectively.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of microorganisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This paper discusses the use of the neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a biocide for the disinfection of diagnostic rooms and equipment, without residues and environmental effects.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:39 to 12:42
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and potential health risks of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water. An extended literature review was initially conducted to collect monitoring data of PFCs in drinking water, worldwide. In order to assess the potential risk for human health associated with the presence of PFCs in drinking water, risk assessment was based on Risk Quotient (RQ) methodology, while RQs were calculated for different life stages, applying different scenarios based on the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values published in the literature. According to the results, there is a considerable number of published articles in scientific journals (31) concerning the presence of PFCs in drinking water. Their mean concentration levels ranged from less than 1 ng L-1 up to less than 200 ng L-1. Amongst all target compounds, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) seemed to pose a probable risk to human health, especially to infants and young children, indicating the need for further research.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:30 to 12:33
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH