Session 50 - Air pollution

This article presents statistical analyses of elements concentrations in mosses which were collected in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2015 throughout Germany at 592, 1026, 1028, 726 and 400 sites, respectively, and chemically analysed according to harmonised methods throughout Europe. The evaluations intended to examine whether the element concentrations are specific to moss species and whether conversion factors should be used. Such observations and recommendations have so far been limited to spatially confined areas with relatively few moss samples and were derived from studies without methodological harmonisation.
The data collected 1990-2015 across Germany was analysed by percentile statistics. The samplings from 2015 were additionally evaluated by bivariate correlation analyses and multivariate techniques to identify and rank the statistical relevance of site-specific and regional characteristics for the concentrations of 12 heavy metals and nitrogen in mosses. The strongest predictor for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and N concentrations was the sampled moss species. In 2015, the atmospheric deposition showed a lower predictive power compared to earlier campaigns. However, the present study does not refute the hypothesis of moss species-specific element concentrations which are in the range of local and metrological variance. It is therefore advisable to continue dispensing with conversion factors.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:30 to 17:45
Oral presentation in Air pollution

Krakow is now firmly established as one of the Europe’s top tourist destinations and, at the same time, it is one of the cities with the worst air quality in Europe. The Wawel Royal Castle is of the most important museum and predominating visited attraction of the city of Krakow (in 2017, the Castle was visited by over 1.4 million tourists).
Taking this into account, and in accordance with the guidelines of European Standards, the Wawel Royal Castle has been implemented the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for protection of cultural heritage (CSN EN 16790:2016). As a part of the preventive conservation strategy, the monitoring of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)has been carried out in addition to the standard control of climate parameters.Air samples were collected in rooms with various intensity of tourist traffic including: State Rooms, Royal Private Apartments, as well as warehouses and conservation workrooms.
The highest concentrations of PM, selected chemical compounds and microorganismsin the air were observedin the first halls at the entrance to Castle and in some conservation workshops.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:54 to 17:57
Flash presentation in Air pollution

Continuous Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) temperature profile measurements are of particular interest in a variety of applications and studies, including air pollution and pollutants dispersion, agricultural meteorology, aeronautical meteorology, mesoscale meteorology, weather forecasting, climate studies, energy applications. Several methods have developed and are applied for these measurements, being both direct (in situ) by using sensors located on tower structures, balloon-borne instrumentation, until aircraft techniques and indirect or remote sensing techniques. The latest mainly involve transmitted acoustic, radio, or light energy, and the detection of the scattered energy due to atmospheric targets. Passive techniques involve the measurement of radiation naturally emitted from the atmosphere, for example, as in microwave and infrared radiometry. In this work, the technique of passive microwave radiometry for the measurement of the temperature profile in ABL is described and some measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements carried out in the industrial area of Western Macedonia, a large and broad mountain basin in NW Greece, by using the MTP-5 system. MTP-5 is a remote sensing instrument that measures microwave radiation emitted from the lower 1000 m of the atmosphere, within the Planetary Boundary Layer.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:51 to 17:54
Flash presentation in Air pollution

Present paper reports the main results of an extended field scale investigation of UFP and nanoparticle size fractions emitted from a clinical waste incineration facility. Measurements were conducted at stack emissions with an electric low-pressure impactor counting system for the evaluation of total particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 7 nm - 10 µm. Sampled fractions were also evaluated for their content of trace metals of concern (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), analyzed in terms of total concentrations and size distributions within fine, ultrafine and nanoparticle fractions. Results obtained are reported and analyzed for total concentrations and size distributions observed, with measurements also discussed in comparative terms, in order to figure out the investigated activities in perspective within the general issue of UFP emissions from other types of sources.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 16:45 to 17:00
Oral presentation in Air pollution

Contaminant concentrations and their variability affect rate of removal of air contaminant in biofiltration. In this study with toluene as the air contaminant, extent of degradation rate at varying concentrations (from 50 to 700 ppm) in terms of elimination capacity (EC) was measured using a soil biofilter run for 215 days. It appears that no inhibition or oxygen limitation was observed at 700 ppm as EC went higher at this concentration reaching 58 g m-3 hr-1. Results show that at low toluene concentrations in the gas stream, toluene was degraded faster than it could diffuse into the biofilm while at high toluene concentrations, the whole biofilm was fully penetrated and there was no increase in EC due to biological activity limitation. Oxygen limitation may influence removal rates even if oxygen is not completely depleted in the biofilm with biofilm thickness as another factor in oxygen limitation. There was growth in the biofilm but it did not produce a biofilm thick enough to give rise to oxygen limitation. Though toluene inhibition and/or oxygen limitation could eventually become influencing factors, biofiltration may be used as an air pollution control technology at varying contaminant concentration.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:00 to 17:15
Oral presentation in Air pollution

In the frame of an EC Horizon 2020 project named “ICARUS” (Integrated Climate forcing and Air pollution reduction in Urban Systems), a newly constructed N.A.S.A Awarded light aircraft equipped with high-tech scientific instrumentation was used to perform an aerial mapping over Athens, Thessaloniki and Ljubljana greater Area. The main goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) on Green House Gases (GHGs) concentrations over three different areas of the cities. Detailed meteorological information were provided by aircraft instrumentation, radiosonde data as well as regional modelling results available from the Atmospheric Modelling group of University of Athens. The estimation of the mixing height of the ABL was based on the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation and the prevailing background wind. It was generally found that the mixing height variation following the prevailing meteorological conditions results in different concentration profiles in the lower troposphere over the examined regions.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:15 to 17:30
Oral presentation in Air pollution

Odour nuisance is the second environmental problem with more citizen complaints after noise. This fact and the lack of odour regulation in Portugal led way to develop a bottom-up approach focused on citizens to co-create the analysis. Despite the existence of odour measuring instruments, the human nose is a universal sensor with high sensitivity that allows to assess the impact of discomfort on human receptors. A sensorial method was conducted in a community neighbor of an oilseed industry that cause impact on their daily life because of the “cereal/flours/feeds” odour (based on citizens’ complaints, industry type, exploratory survey). Two monitoring campaigns were conducted with the help of a group of citizens forming an observers panel (OP) whose function was to record odour observations. A road circuit was outlined by the technical team also to register odour observations but essentially to verify the OP registers. For both cases a meteorological analysis was conducted with a weather station. Results showed that the “cereal/flours/feeds” kind of odour was registered by the OP 150 times during a six month period. The intensity level, although week, was several times perceived when the meteorological conditions were week wind and wind blowing from the northwest which led the plume towards the population.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 16:30 to 16:45
Oral presentation in Air pollution

An important aspect in the design of wind farms and consequently in wind power production, is the sensitivity of wind turbines to wind gusts. This study aims at estimating the probability of occurrence of daily wind gusts for different atmospheric circulation regimes. The analysis is performed for a 31-year period (1979-2009) for the Hellinikon station in Athens, Greece. The proposed methodology estimates wind gust speed values from the mean daily wind speed observations for a given atmospheric circulation pattern. The large-scale atmospheric circulation classification is based on a two-stage clustering approach, using Self-Organizing Maps as a clustering methodology. The classification is based on the Sea Level Pressure, the geopotential at 500hPa, the zonal and meridional wind components at 10m and at 850hPa, the specific humidity at 700hPa and the air and dew-point temperature at 2m. Following the gust factor method, different statistical models are trained for each of the eight identified atmospheric modes. The results demonstrate the suitability of associating wind gusts and mean wind speeds. The adopted gust factor method provides accurate estimates of daily wind gust speeds and that the atmospheric circulation enhances the precision of the statistical models.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 16:15 to 16:30
Oral presentation in Air pollution

The importance of meteorological parameters and topography in determining the air pollution levels in a specific area is well established. The aim of this study is to model the association between air pollution levels and meteorological parameters for a single site in Athens, Greece. The statistical analysis is based on the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models for simulating the relationship amongst primary and secondary pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3 and SO2) and air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth. The meteorological variables are used as explanatory variables for training different statistical models for each pollutant. The analysis is performed for a twenty-year period (1990-2009) at 00Z and 12Z. Special emphasis is given to the most accurate representation of the ABL depth by using three different methods (i.e. Holzworth, virtual Richardson number and potential temperature gradient). The modeling results indicate the superior performance in the case where the ABL depth was calculated by the virtual Richardson number method. The results indicate the importance of meteorology in air quality along with the significance of other factors that increase air pollution variability in urban environments.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:48 to 17:51
Flash presentation in Air pollution

The appearance of natural odors sources (Sargassum beaching events) or odors generated by the human activity (industrial sites) represent a major challenge for municipalities. Combined with intolerance of nuisances by residents, and/or tourists, it forces municipalities and industrial players to manage and control diffused emissions of odors in a more stringent and efficient way.
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) have been identified as the main odorous nuisance sources, they also have high adverse effects on health, and therefore they must be monitored and controlled.
Real-time and continuous monitoring of both H2S and NH3 emissions near industrial sites using advanced micro-sensors, based on amperometric detection, has been carried out in this study. Compared to reference and standardized analyzers, providing precise measurements at a single place, micro-sensors are an effective and cheaper solution that can be easily deployed on large areas.
This paper presents the monitoring of odorous gases emitted by algae putrefaction, fertilizers and waste treatment plants across Atlantic coast by Cairnet stations network combined with the Caircloud software monitoring platform. The results show the contribution of micro-sensors network in order to improve the management of odorous gas emissions from industrial or natural sources.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 16:00 to 16:15
Oral presentation in Air pollution

This paper aims to assess the air quality improvement and resulting health implications in a Portuguese urban area, by testing traffic management scenarios focused on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emission reduction. To that end, an integrated multiscale modelling system was developed and applied for a typical traffic-activity day using dynamical downscaling to the street level. At this finer scale, the tested scenarios contributed to a reduction of the daily maximum NO2 concentration and health benefits, though the LEZ effect is more felt within its influence area.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:45 to 16:00
Oral presentation in Air pollution

Measuring odour concentration is a significant step to achieve efficient environmental odour management in continuous, objective and repeatable manner. To deal with this, researchers developed instrumental odour monitoring systems (IOMS) by applying odour monitoring models (OMM) for prediction. At present, limited data are available in the literature regarding the exploration of different prediction models to quantify the odour emissions in terms of odour concentration.
This study presents and compares different types of parametric and nonparametric predictive models (i.e., artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARSpline), partial least squares (PLS), multiple linear regression (MLR), response surface regression (RSR)) with the aim to increase the reliability of the odour concentration prediction by using IOMS for environmental odour monitoring. The experimental studies are carried out considering odour samples collected from the organic fractions in municipal solid waste. All samples undergone seedOA eNose and dynamic olfactometry analysis as reference methods. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to measure the goodness-of-fit of the models.
Results indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the analyzed models and highlight their accuracy in terms of odour concentration prediction.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:15 to 15:30
Oral presentation in Air pollution

Odour emissions from complex industrial plants may cause potential impacts on the surrounding areas and, as consequence, complaints with the local residents. The identification of specific odour control plan is therefore needed in the plant management. The current challenge is the definition of Instrumental Odour Monitoring Systems (IOMSs) that allow the continuous odour characterization. No regulation or standardized procedure exist at present. Limited data are available in the literature with reference to the characteristics and operational procedure of this systems for the environmental odours monitoring. The study presents a novel prototype of intelligent and integrated IOMS for the continuous classification and quantification of the odours emitted in ambient air by complex industrial plants, with the scope to control the plants emissions in an objective and continuous manner, thus avoiding odour impact. The architecture and the principal components of the IOMS are highlighted. The operational procedures are presented and discussed. Results highlights the importance and the flexibility of the proposed IOMS in the odour monitoring. Real-time and accurate information are provided by the system about the source and concentration of the odour emissions.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:30 to 15:45
Oral presentation in Air pollution

The major tracers are thermal degradation products from the biopolymer cellulose, namely the didehydromonosaccharide derivatives levoglucosan (LG), galactosan (GA) and mannosan (MN) and the resin acid derivative dehydroabietic acid, with minor β-sitosterol. The relative proportions of levoglucosan to mannosan (LG/MN) have been used for source reconstruction of combustion derived byproducts in atmospheric aerosols. Major tracers eg. levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan were measured at two sites in Silesia region and health resort (Krynica) during winter season 2017/2018. Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were quantified using a validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method described in detail by [Klejnowski et al, 2017]. The obtained results showed that mean concentrations of the total tracers determined in air in winter season were 522.6 ng/m3 for Zabrze sampling point, 465.2 ng/m3 in the case Rokitno and 156.75ng/m3 for Krynica. Levoglucosan was most abundant tracer of biomass burning, it was 83.2 % of determined tracers in Zabrze, 78.1 % in Rokitno and 88.9 % in case of Krynica.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 17:45 to 17:48
Flash presentation in Air pollution

The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) is the largest coal basin in Poland and one of the largest in Europe. It is the most industrialized region in Poland. The main natural resource and energy raw material is hard coal which was produced by 65 mines in the early nineties. The USCB geology is very diverse and not homogeneous. Coal deposits situated in the central, southern and western regions are mostly covered by impermeable Miocene deposits which helped methane (CH4) to accumulate in the past. Methane is one of the most dangerous natural hazard in Polish underground mining because it is explosive gas. CH4 is also the second strongest greenhouse gas after the carbon dioxide, but its radiative power is 21-25 times stronger than the radiative power of CO2. Polish coal mines releases 568.9 million m3 (average) of CH4 yearly and it provides to greenhouse effect increasing. From one year to another, the Upper Silesian coal mines are going to extract hard coal from deeper seams when the methane content is much higher. To keep workers safe, CH4 need to be captured and released to the open air atmosphere or used to power and heat production.

Session: 50, Room: B, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:00 to 15:15
Oral presentation in Air pollution