Session 6 - Solid waste management

[CEST2019_00980] The role of End of Waste Criteria in the Framework of Circular Economy Strategy
by Zorpas A.

More than 1.8 billion tonnes of waste are produced each year in Europe. This equals to 3.5 t per person and are mainly produced from commercial activities (e.g. shops, hospitals, restaurants), industry (e.g. clothes manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies), agriculture (e.g. slurry), construction and demolition projects, mining and quarrying activities from energy production as well as from household activities. Waste can be divided into several categories: municipal waste (including household and commercial), industrial waste (including manufacturing), hazardous waste, construction and demolition waste, mining waste, waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), biodegradable municipal waste, packaging waste, end-of-life vehicles and tires, agricultural waste. Article 6 in WFD (2008/98) defines that those wastes must be reduced as well as contain provisions to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC) that provide a high level of environmental protection and an economic benefit. Qualifications and requirements should be established in agreement with certain conditions described in the directive to check if specific waste streams have reached an end-of-waste (EoW) status. The main goal of EWC is to remove and eliminate the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating and assisting recycling.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:00 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Several tools are available for evaluating the environmental level and/or performance of waste management in an area using several benchmarking indicators, such as life cycle assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, compositional analysis etc. Often these tools are the simplifications of the actual facts as the waste management systems are complex and difficult to generalise from case studies This research implement several benchmarking indicators such as compositional analysis of household waste, level of recycling index, participation in home composting, awareness activities, prevention activities in order to assess the level of the circular economy strategy in a Municipality (located in Cyprus). The results indicate that the more than 75% of the citizens are participated in the recycling door to door program. However, the recyclable waste that are been collected are not clear as include other impurities. For example, the impurities in PMD is more than 20% indicated that a door to door training program is needed. Also, the concentration of PMD and Papers in the household waste count more than 18% indicated that the waste sorting at source needs further attention. Home composting seems to be a promising method to treat leftovers and other yard wastes and minimized the volume of organic waste that are dumped in landfills.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Microporous 12-ring zeolite Beta was impregnated with palladium and evaluated in the cracking of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cracking. In addition to the catalytic measurements the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and nitrogen adsorption, electron microscopy, and FT infrared spectroscopic studies pyridine and CO adsorption. In addition to TGA catalytic studies, the operando IR studies were furthermore performed to follow the aromatic species formation. Deposition of palladium on microporous zeolite BEA improved the catalytic activity and selectivity towards C2-C4 fraction.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Improving mass transport in zeolites Beta by bottom-up hierarchization was aimed at preserving their native microporous acidic characteristic and finally demonstrating their applicability in LDPE catalytic pyrolysis, in contrast to top-down modified analogues.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Reliable data on Municipal Solid Waste composition are paramount for the development of environmentally sound, sustainable and economically viable integrated waste management systems. However, no standardized universally accepted waste characterization protocol has been developed, as there are various methodologies described in the relevant literature (Edjabou et al., 2015). In the present study, a generic and easy-to-apply waste sampling and sorting approach is developed and presented. The area of interest of the characterization was the Municipality of Halandri in Attica, Greece. The MSW composition characterization was necessary for the development of an innovative waste management strategy in the Municipality (WASTE4Think, 2015). Five suitable waste collection points were identified as sampling points. In each sampling point three collection bins were located (commingled waste in green bins, recyclables in blue bins and paper & cardboard in yellow bins). The sampling points were selected in residential areas (no shops, companies etc. around). For a week - seven consecutive days - the content of the bins was collected and transported to a sorting facility, where bins’ material was sorted into 40 fractions and weighted. The results indicated a recycling rate up to 75% and a level of impurities in the recycling bins (blue and yellow) no more than 12%.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Today the quality of compost is the most essential criterion in recycling organic wastes, as well as its marketing and utilization in agriculture. Environmentally safe recycling of organic waste to agricultural land could be crucial to sustaining soil productivity in Mediterranean areas, where soil organic matter content is very low. The present study discusses variations in some quality parameters of compost produced using various organic combinations. Over a period of 120 days, special attention was given to monitoring compost quality parameters, including: temperature, dry matter, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), microbial counts, organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), NH4, NO3, C:N ratio, macronutrients (NPK), and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu). The results revealed that almost all of the investigated parameters showed remarkable changes during compost formation. Agricultural wastes in the presence 10% poultry manure was comparatively of superior quality in terms of the availability of macro and micronutrients as well as microbial activity. However, agricultural wastes with 10% mixture of sheep and camel manure was found to be superior in terms of OM, OC, C:N ratio and yielded the highest bacterial counts. Compost quality depended on the base materials used, the duration and conditions of decomposition.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:30 to 10:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management