[CEST2019_00919] Emissions of volatile organic compounds from flex printing facility
by Savić B., Tanović P., Janjić N.

The present study was undertaken to investigate, the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in working zone of flex printing facility in Novi Sad, Serbia. The levels of VOCs were determined at four sampling positions: at the machine; at a distance of 3 m from the machine; at the outlet of machine, at the entrance of the digester and at the exit of the digester. The quantitative determination of VOCs compounds was performed using portable Voc Pro Photovac. VOCs concentrations varied within the 8h-sampling period and differed between sampling positions. The highest concentration was measured at the outlet of machine, entrance in digester, while the lowest at a distance of 3 m from the machine.
The obtained levels of VOCs exceed the levels advised by OSHA and NIOSH standards. Therefore, this paper provides propositions on improving the process of flexographic printing, and therefore, human health.

Session: 51, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:36 to 15:39
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00871] Flame Retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) and Organophoshates, OPFRs) In Dust from Canadian Fire Stations
by Brown F.R., Tarrant D.H., Gill R., Dhaliwal J., Sarala R., Patton S., Park J.S., Petreas M.

Dust is a good medium to assess indoor exposures to many persistent organics, including flame retardants. With concerns regarding persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of many flame retardants, a series of bans and regulations have created shifts in their usage. For firefighters, exposures to flame retardants on and off duty is a high concern. In 2018 we measured flame retardants in Canadian fire station dust and compared our findings with those of our 2015 US fire stations study. We used isotope dilution HRMS for PBDEs and GC-MS/MS for OPFRs. The same flame retardants were present in all stations with high within- and between-station variability. The most prominent among PBDEs was BDE-209, followed by BDE-99. TDCIPP and TPhP were the dominant OPFRs. Overall, data from 2015 (US) and 2018 (Canada) show that OPFRs have surpassed PBDEs in fire station dust, probably reflecting shifts in flame retardant use in consumer products and building materials.

Session: 51, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:15 to 15:30
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00826] Potential Links between Precipitation and Anthrax Outbreak at North-West Siberia
by Ezhova E., Orlov D., Malkhazova S., Drozdov D., Gennadinik V., Kaverin D., Zilitinkevich S., Kerminen V.-M., Petäjä T., Kulmala M.

West Siberia is a region subject to fast warming and unstable precipitation regime. In 2016, the most devastating anthrax outbreak in seventy years occurred in the northern part of the region. A working hypothesis suggests that permafrost thawing led to an exposure of old infected carcasses. We performed a thorough analysis of climatic factors in the region. Our analysis of soil temperature observations from the last 20 years indeed reveals rapid permafrost thawing near outbreak localization starting from 2010. We further analyzed meteorological observations to estimate the effect of warming and precipitation on permafrost. We showed that permafrost thawing was significantly accelerated during two consequent years with anomalously thick snow cover. Furthermore, spread of the disease was possibly intensified by an extremely dry summer. Precipitation in June-July 2016 did not exceed 10% of the climatological normals in the region. We conclude that epidemiological situation concerning anthrax remains highly unstable in the region due to the drastic decrease in summer precipitation and potential winter precipitation extremes.

Session: 51, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:00 to 15:15
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00579] Influence of the Environmental Factors on Contamination of Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)
by Henigman U., Biasizzo M., Vadnjal S., Knific T., Kirbiš A.

Mussel harvesting areas in Slovenia are monitored for contamination with E. coli as pollution indicator bacteria. According to contamination levels, areas are classified into A, B or C category. An A category means that there is less than 700 E. coli MPN/100 g of the shellfish flesh and intervalvular fluid. Mussels from the areas with the established A category are placed on the market directly, whereas shellfish from areas classified as B or C category undergo a depurating process. The aim of our research was to gain detailed insight into the contamination with E. coli as well as with some other microorganisms and heavy metals. We also took into account possible factors affecting the contamination of seawater and shellfish (e.g. marine currents, rainfall, tides). During a one-year period 34 samplings at three shellfish harvesting areas and one wild area were carried out (306 samples). Higher levels of contamination were observed in colder parts of the year (spring, winter) and at the time of heavy rainfalls. Correlation between E. coli number in mussels and enterococci in seawater was statistically significant. To ensure safety of the mussels it is therefore important to carry out increased number of samplings at critical periods of the year.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00586] On-chip Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for rapid detection of bacteria in drinking water
by Angelopoulou Μ., Petrou P.S., Misiakos K., Raptis I., Kakabakos S.E.

A miniaturized optical immunosensor for the simultaneous label-free determination of bacteria in drinking water is presented. The sensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) integrated on silicon chip along with their corresponding broad-band light sources. The transmitted spectra of the MZIs were continuously recorded through a spectrometer. The spectral shifts caused by changes of the effective refractive index on the sensor surface due to bioreaction were converted to phase shifts through discrete Fourier transform. For the analysis, the different MZIs of the chip were biofunctionalized with the respective S. typhimiurim and E. coli membrane antigens. Then, mixtures of bacteria solutions with anti-bacteria antibodies were pumped over the chip followed by reaction with biotinylated anti-species specific antibody and streptavidin. The assays were fast (10 min), sensitive (LODs <2X102 CFU/mL), accurate (recovery 86-115%), repeatable with intra- and inter-assay CVs <5% and 8%, respectively, and the chip could be regenerated/reused for at least 20 times. Considering the low detection limits achieved in combination with the short analysis time and the small chip size, the proposed immunosensor could find wide application for bacteria detection in drinking water at the point-of-need.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00543] Biomonitoring of 21 phthalate metabolites in Slovak pre-school and school age children related to their consumer practices
by Sidlovska M., Hlisnikova H., Petrovicova I., Kolena B., Wimmerova S., Paelmke C., Koch H.M.

Consumer practices are considered to be the main source of human exposure to phthalates. The aim of our study was biomonitoring of low molecular weight phthalate (LMWP) and high molecular weight phthalate (HMWP) metabolites in Slovak pre-school (n=100; age range 1-6 years) and school age children (n= 96; age range 7-15 years) and relate exposures to consumer practices. We used high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for spot urine sample analysis to determine concentrations of 21 phthalate monoesters, metabolites of 11 LMWP and HMWP diesters. Median concentrations of ∑LMWP (177.32 µg.L⁻¹) were close to the ∑HMWP (169.83 µg.L⁻¹) metabolites. We observed significantly (p≤0.05) higher concentrations of 5 LMWP and 4 HMWP metabolites in school-age compared to preschool-age children. Data showed several statistically significant associations (p≤0.05) between concentrations of phthalate metabolites and the consumption of food and beverages. Interestingly, we observed for all HMWP metabolites (except mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate MEHP) and 1 LMWP metabolite (mono-methyl phthalate MMP) significantly lower concentrations in children who used at least 2 personal care products in comparison to non-users. Unexpected results suggest that potential routes of exposure differ from consumer practices included in our study.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:33 to 12:36
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00570] Bottled water microbiological quality in Estonia
by Vahur K., Udras H., Keir K.

Nowadays people often prefer to buy bottled water instead of drinking the tap water. Stores are full of different bottled waters and studies have demonstrated that people tend to consider the bottled water to have high quality (Ward et al 2009, Akpinar et al 2014). The aim of this research was to find out the compliance of bottled water sold in Estonia with the established microbiological normatives. The study included bottled drinking water available in retail stores. A total of 63 bottles of water from 21 different sale items were analyzed. These 21 items included also carbonized waters and flavoured waters. All different waters (21 bottles) were analysed for coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (filtration method, cfu/250 mL), and all 63 bottles were analysed for total bacterial count at 22 °C and 37 °C (pour-plate technique, cfu/1mL).

Session: 51, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:30 to 15:33
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00571] Experimental approach for metabolic disorders as a tool to investigate impact of environment on human health
by Pavlova E., Lakova E., Vladov I., Zapryanova S., Gluhcheva Y., Ivanov I., Svechnikov K., Atanassova N.

The epidemics of obesity and diabetes have occurred contemporaneously with increasing use and exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. Metabolic disorders affect male reproductive potential due to low sperm count and quality, reduced sperm motility and suppression of testosterone production. In this respect our study aimed to evaluate testiscular cell populations and steroidogenic function in tandem with expression of cellular marker tACE (testiscular angiotensin converting enzyme) for germ cell development in experimental conditions of diabetes mellitus (DM) induced on day 1 (neonatally, NDM) or on day 10 (prepubertally, PDM) in rats; short and long high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in rats since puberty. Our data indicate that metabolic disorders (DM and HFD) affected macro-parameters (decreased gonado-somatic index, increased fat accumulation). Long-term obesity negatively influenced Leydig cell number and testosterone production. Expression of tACE in postmeiotic germ cells showed that prepubertal DM but not neonatal DM caused delay in the first spermatogenesis associated with suppressed Leydig cell development and steroidogenesis in adulthood. Our data indicate that metabolic syndrom involving obesity and diabetes exerts negative impact on male reproductive development and function and therefore environmental aspects of endocrine disorders should be considered as a risk factor for male reproductive health.

Session: 51, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 15:33 to 15:36
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00528] QuEChERS methodology combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV/DAD for the determination of common pesticides in honey
by Gotsi E., Boti V., Albanis T.

Over the past few decades, honey products have been found to contain residues of a variety of contaminants. Among them pesticides residues resulting from treatments applied either inside beehives or in the agricultural environment have become an issue of great awareness. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous quantification of amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate, which are the most frequently used insecticides to control varroatosis and ascospherosis in hives. Analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography on a C18 reversed-phase column with UV/diode array detection (HPLC-UV/DAD). An isocratic elution system was used with acetonitrile-water (80:20 v/v) containing 0,01 M acetic acid as the mobile phase while the selected compounds, amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos and τ-fluvalinate were detected at 249, 233, 313 and 254 nm, respectively. Overall recovery rates from honey samples ranged from 78% (bromopropylate) to 103% (amitraz), with correlation coefficients >0,99 in all cases. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of 19 commercial honey samples.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:36 to 12:39
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00496] An initial study of the opinions of car purchasers in Poland: do they choose electric vehicles?
by Bienias K., Kowalska-Pyzalska A., Ramsey D.

Road transport causes one fifth of the EU's total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), which are especially high in cities. A suggested solution to this situation is the introduction of electric vehicles (EV). However, evidence from European countries shows that, the sales of EVs are low in comparison to other vehicles, especially without any governmental support. Our pilot study, conducted in Wrocław (Poland), shows that car purchasers in Poland are aware of the difference between pure electric and hybrid vehicles (HEVs). However, the potential for sales of EVs and HEVs still seems limited as most car purchasers buy on the second-hand market. Our study shows that consumers have a generally positive opinion about EVs. However, they see strong barriers in adopting EV as none of 52 respondents decided to buy an EV.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00443] Effect of iodine containing irrigation water on plant physiological processes of bean and potato cultivated in different soils
by Dobosy P., Vetési V., Kröpfl K., Sandil S., Óvári M., Rékási M., Záray Gy.

Iodine deficiency in humans is a well-known environmental health problem in several regions of the world. Fruits and vegetables have been proven to be an effective way to increase iodine intake for humans by iodine enriched edible plants.
In our study plant physiological processes of potato and bean plants cultivated on three different soils (sandy, silty sand, silt) applying potassium iodide containing irrigation water in concentration of 0.10 and 0.50 mg/L were investigated. After the harvest the plant parts (root, aerial parts and fruits) were dried and their mass were determined. The homogenized plant parts were mineralized by microwave-assisted acidic digestion. Iodine and essential element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.
In case of bean fruits the iodine addition (0.50 mg/L) resulted in considerable reduction (20-50%) of biomass, while the relative change of potato mass amounted to only -10% - +10% depending on the soil type. Results showed, that applying 0.50 mg/L iodine concentration in the irrigation water, the highest iodine concentration in edible parts of bean and potato plants were 1.6 mg/kg (silt soil) and 1.8 mg/kg (sandy soil), respectively.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00445] Environmentally friendly disinfection of air and surfaces in medicine
by Pintarič Š., Pintarič R., Henigman U., Janković L.

Hospitals are faced with increasingly resistant strains of microorganisms. When it comes to disinfection, individual parts of electronic equipment of angiology diagnostics such as patient couches of computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners prove to be very hard to disinfect. Disinfectants of choice are therefore expected to possess properties such as rapid, residue-free action without any damaging effect on the sensitive electronic equipment. This paper discusses the use of the neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) as a biocide for the disinfection of diagnostic rooms and equipment, without residues and environmental effects.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:39 to 12:42
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00339] Microbiological diversity and microbial related risks at Wawel Royal Castle in Krakow, Poland
by Pyzik A., Dyda M., Wiłkojć E., Winiewicz-Wolska J.

We propose the installation of holiday camps equipped for research activities to study behavioral therapies and at the same time offer immediate help for families or individuals that suffer from modern technology pathologic use. An ideal setting could be a region that abstains from wireless modern technology networks and provides facilities to consume addictive technology under controlled conditions. Currently we are looking for a Greek island that can be dedicated to the project.

Session: 39, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00306] Air pollution exposures and respiratory health in 5-year-old children
by Ntarladima A.M., Vaartjes I., Grobbee D.E., Dijst M., Schmitz O., Uiterwaal C., Dalmeijer G., Van Der Ent C., Hoek G., Karssenberg D.

Background: Growing evidence indicates that respiratory health in children is related to air pollution. Most of previous studies rely on residential air pollution estimates to represent individual exposure; however, there is evidence that residential estimates tend to misclassify exposure. Aim: This study aims to assess the relations between air pollution exposures and respiratory health (asthma, wheezing and lung function) by applying a sophisticated exposure assessment technique. Methods: The study relies on a Dutch cohort and includes 733 children. The prevalence of asthma and wheezing and the spirometry measurements were determined at the age of 5. The annual average concentration maps of Particulate Matters and Nitrogen Oxides that we used in the study were derived from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. To assess individualized air pollution exposures an updated exposure assessment technique was applied. Results: This study did not show significant associations between air pollution exposures and the studied health outcomes in the 5-year olds. For example, after adjusting for possible confounders, the ORs were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.61) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.64) for wheezing prevalence for NOx and PM2.5 respectively.

Session: 39, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00266] Effect of anthropogenic sources on total particles and Cloud Condensation Nuclei levels in the Eastern Mediterranean
by Kalkavouras P., Zarmpas P., Bougiatioti A.,Mihalopoulos N.

The absorption and scattering of radiation by atmospheric aerosol particles, especially those originating from anthropogenic activities, is a key component of anthropogenic climate change. Aerosol particles also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) “indirectly” forcing climate through the modification of cloud properties and precipitation efficiency. The activation of particles to form CCN depend highly on particle size and chemical composition and differs upon location and proximity to sources. Particle number size distributions, aerosol chemical composition and CCN measurements were performed at two sites in the Eastern Mediterranean, namely a remote background site at Finokalia, Crete and an urban background location downtown Athens, Greece. The aim of the study is to characterize the levels and distribution of total aerosol particles (CN) and CCN in the different environments and analyse the role of anthropogenic sources in the measured levels

Session: 39, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00295] Human exposure to PFCs by drinking water
by Thomaidi V.S., Tsahouridou A., Stasinakis A.S., Kalantzi O.I.

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and potential health risks of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water. An extended literature review was initially conducted to collect monitoring data of PFCs in drinking water, worldwide. In order to assess the potential risk for human health associated with the presence of PFCs in drinking water, risk assessment was based on Risk Quotient (RQ) methodology, while RQs were calculated for different life stages, applying different scenarios based on the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values published in the literature. According to the results, there is a considerable number of published articles in scientific journals (31) concerning the presence of PFCs in drinking water. Their mean concentration levels ranged from less than 1 ng L-1 up to less than 200 ng L-1. Amongst all target compounds, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) seemed to pose a probable risk to human health, especially to infants and young children, indicating the need for further research.

Session: 45, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 12:30 to 12:33
Flash presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
[CEST2019_00207] Microbial Concrete: A step towards mitigating the climate change and global warming at micro level
by El Morabet R., Khan R.A., Alasiri M.

The post-industrial revolution anthropogenic activities are mainly responsible for Pollution worldwide. This pollution is recognized globally in terms of Global warming and Climate change as their resultant impacts are felt worldwide. The world-wide effort for mitigation of climate change and global warming are in place but are ineffective and not enough to overcome the pollution in Urban landscapes. This necessitates the requirement of a system and methodology that can be applicable in a sustainable manner without disturbing the Urban Landscapes. The present study analysis the potential of microbial concrete in terms of Carbon dioxide sequestration for King Khalid University Campus. The study found that the microbial concrete panel effectively reduced carbon dioxide in range of 2-3% from ambient air quality. Since the microbial concrete is an inbuilt part of the building it can be installed without hindering the Urban Landscape and change in user pattern. The microbial concrete is a green, sustainable and environment friendly solution to changing urban dynamics air quality.

Session: 39, Room: C, at Sat, 09/07/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH