Solid waste management

[CEST2019_00980] The role of End of Waste Criteria in the Framework of Circular Economy Strategy
by Zorpas A.

More than 1.8 billion tonnes of waste are produced each year in Europe. This equals to 3.5 t per person and are mainly produced from commercial activities (e.g. shops, hospitals, restaurants), industry (e.g. clothes manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies), agriculture (e.g. slurry), construction and demolition projects, mining and quarrying activities from energy production as well as from household activities. Waste can be divided into several categories: municipal waste (including household and commercial), industrial waste (including manufacturing), hazardous waste, construction and demolition waste, mining waste, waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), biodegradable municipal waste, packaging waste, end-of-life vehicles and tires, agricultural waste. Article 6 in WFD (2008/98) defines that those wastes must be reduced as well as contain provisions to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC) that provide a high level of environmental protection and an economic benefit. Qualifications and requirements should be established in agreement with certain conditions described in the directive to check if specific waste streams have reached an end-of-waste (EoW) status. The main goal of EWC is to remove and eliminate the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating and assisting recycling.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:00 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

In Greece, approximately 1.8 million tonnes of food waste are generated each year, mostly disposed of in landfill. Food waste is of concern for businesses in the hospitality and food service sectors, which in Greece dispose of an estimated 100,000 tonnes of food waste annually, almost 6% of the total food waste generated in Greece.
The food waste composition analysis and generation rate were determined through Waste Analysis Campaigns (WACs). It is in the scope of the present work to illustrate the results of food waste compositional analysis on samples from the study area of the targeted hotels of Heraklion and Hersonissos in the Region of Crete. The increased need for food waste diversion from landfill and the existing policy which promotes its separate collection and treatment necessitates the comprehensive characterisation of food waste in order to fill information gaps and uncertainties towards food waste management improvements.
The ‘Fresh Fruits’ and ‘Fresh Vegetable and Salads’ represented the greatest proportions (56.5%) in each WAC for the hotels. A certain degree of variability is observed though due to seasonal variation.
The recorded low impurities content (~0.6%) demonstrate that the participating hotels practice effectively the source separation of the generated food waste.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:15 to 16:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Restaurants, food processing industries and café kitchen generate significant amounts of food waste (FW) and waste cooking oil. Septage treatment also generates large amount of biosolids. This study explores the application of anaerobic process, which generates methane, a renewable energy resource, to these wastes. The performance of batch anaerobic co-digestion of food waste, biosolids and waste cooking oil at varying waste ratio, namely 0, 30, 50 and 70 mass percent volatile solids (VS) was determined. The seed sludge used was a combination of cow rumen obtained from a slaughterhouse and pig manure. The waste mixture that did not contain waste oil yielded the highest amount of methane (61.5 mL g-1 VS), showed the highest VS destruction (48.51%) and rate of hydrolysis (first-order rate constant of 0.187 d-1). Rates of hydrolysis and methane production, methane yield and methane content of the biogas produced were lower at higher amounts of oil added but constant amount of seed sludge. Nevertheless, the mixture containing 70% waste oil produced 9.54 mL g-1 VS. Compared with other simple means of disposal, this method of the three kinds of wastes is a promising energy-generating option for treating food waste.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:00 to 16:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Landfill is generally believed to have higher greenhouse gas emissions than composting or waste-to-energy. The EU Landfill Directive requires nations to progressively divert biodegradable waste away from landfill. Waste disposal in landfill is at the bottom of its Waste Hierarchy. Many nations also ban landfilling of plastic. These policies may inadvertently increase global warming by increasing incineration. In Europe, Waste-to-Energy (WTE) incineration emits 72,000,000 tonnes of fossil CO2 a year, increasing yearly. Landfill methane is now generally captured. Nations that directly measure landfill gas emissions (the UK, Ireland and USA) now report about 65- 75% landfill gas recovery; the average for California is 79%. It is now almost always used to generate electricity. When burnt it does not emit fossil CO2. Landfill is a carbon sink, sequestering about half of the organic carbon deposited in it, long-term, like peat. This reduces the global flux of CO2.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:06 to 17:09
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In Greece, large quantities of by-products are produced annually from urban and industrial activities among them very high olive oil production by-products. Thus, the interest of the scientific community has focused on the utilization of olive oil waste mainly as a feed using various microorganisms and fungi, of which only a small number can biodegrade the waste. In the present study the effect of solid fermentation of olive mill waste (OMW)-straw (in various proportions) mixture using the LGAM P123 strain of Pleurotus ostreatus under the conditions of experiments on the quality of the olive pomace is investigated. LGAM P123 strain was grown in solid and liquid substrates as well as in a mixture of the hay and olive-pomace substrate. The results obtained from the experimental procedure resulted in an increase in the proportion of proteins in straw and OMW mixtures. In addition, the content of fibrous matter in the fermented samples showed a significant decrease whereas total polyphenols appeared an extremely strong decrease.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:51 to 13:54
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

The problem on solid waste has been and still remains as a major problem in the Philippines especially in developing countries where proper facilities for collection and disposal are not always available. In Metro Manila alone, daily waste generation stands at 8,600 tons coming from a population 12.8M. The infrastructure has already reached its maximum capacity resulting to major upsets in environmental quality. The sheer volume of solid waste generated daily poses a big challenge for disposal options since reuse and recycling methods are the only the socially acceptable options. Incineration though not strictly banned by law has never been initiated apparently due to lack of a scientific understanding of the process and its appreciation as a safe and viable process of handling solid waste. Meanwhile, depletion of available capacities of sanitary landfills proceeds at an accelerated phase because of the sheer volume of solid waste to be disposed compounded by the reluctance to implement waste to energy options of waste disposal. In a bid to address the issue, the Philippine Congress legislated a law to require all local government units (LGU) in the country to develop a comprehensive solid waste management plan. Notwithstanding these efforts, the problem remains far from over. The volume of waste ending up in the landfill continues to be the dominant concern.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:00 to 15:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Multilayer Packaging Waste (MPW) represents the largest fraction of packaging waste and is mainly composed of multiple plastic films laminated with Al foil ( (2018). Packaging waste statistics). The most produced multilayer film is based on the different polymers, such as polyester (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) as main components, and an aluminum layer (European Commission JRC Technical reports). According to Eurostat Statistics Explained, the amount of packaging waste generated in the EU between 2007 and 2016 was estimated at 79 ± 1.25 million ton per year. Because of that, this type of waste is difficulty recyclable, its representative one of the biggest polluter in the environment. Research aims were to recover valuable materials from MPW in order to reduce the waste stream and reduce environmental pollution.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 14:00 to 14:03
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In this work, with the support of the local municipality, we’ve collected for each highland region the data showing: the number of population, existence of the main sources causing waste, the quantity of the dumpster, the frequency of the waste removal with the relevant technic etc. Based on all these data by applying our methodology, we count a probability of existence of the uncontrolled landfills that can exist in the particular region. We also use the pictures from a drone.
In the present research we also made a comparative analysis of our theoretical conclusion concerning the particular rural areas and the results of the real data received after the expedition on the same place.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:54 to 13:57
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In the laboratories the special research were carried to determine the pollution level in the samples collected, which due to the direct impact of these types of landfill sites on the surrounding areas, are often the main polluters of environment. The pollution conditions were studied based on modern methodology and techniques (ISO methods).
The received results allow concluding:
•The pollution is different for the West and East Georgia. The analysis of the water and soil samples showed that the territories and water bodies adjacent to the landfills located in western Georgia are relatively less polluted than similar areas in the East Georgia;
•In the analysed samples concentrations of various polluting ingredients (heavy metals- Pb,Cu,Zn,Cd and biogenic elements- total coli forms, Fecal streptococci, and Е. coli) determined from the soil and water samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:57 to 14:00
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Development of in situ preparation method of porous low-density carbon materials from industrial waste is important. Alkali earth metal doped porous carbon materials can serve as a support for CO2 mineralization in pores to generate the final carbonate enriched porous carbons, MCO3-PC, as a composite for potential applications in CO2 capture and sequestration. Herein we report on developing mineral carbonization technology using porous carbons from vacuum residue to generate products that are best suited economically for CO2 sequestration. Activating of vacuum residue (VR) using activation reagent as Ca(OH)2 and MgO mixed with KOH gives a porous structure and metal particles that can react with CO2. The study of the synthesized material showed the presence of nonporous carbon and alkali earth metal ions.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Limited attention has been paid to health-care waste management despite an increase in public concern about the management of such waste on a global basis. The objective of this study was to analyse the issues and challenges of health-care waste management as well as possible solutions. It is estimated that about 50% of the world’s population is at particular risk from improperly treated health-care waste. In most countries wastes from hospitals and other health-related facilities are not required to be treated to remove the thousands of high-volume health-care chemicals. Incomplete removal can lead to formation of transformation products which in some cases may be more toxic than the parent compounds. Uptake of contaminants by earthworms and plants may contribute to biomagnification in terrestrial food web, and thus, their food-chain effects need attention. Humans can be exposed to chemicals through the consumption of contaminated water and food. Stewardship and green pharmacy have the potential to deliver positive environmental health. The whole life cycle of a compound or health-care product has to be considered when making risk management and risk reduction decisions. Such life-cycle assessment can be made by various stakeholders in the health-care chain, including manufacturers, doctors, pharmacists, and patients.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:00 to 17:03
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Co-Pyrolysis of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polystyrene (PS) was carried out in a semi-batch glass reactor system. Effects of temperature and feedstock ratio on pyrolytic product yields (gaseous, liquid and solid residue) and chemical composition of the liquid were investigated. All experiments were performed with 15 g feedstock in 25 mL/min nitrogen atmosphere and 60 min duration at specified temperature. Temperature was changed from 470 to 620 °C with 50 °C break by utilizing PID controller which was setted 10 °C/min heating rate. PS in the feedstock was varied as 0, 33, 67, 100 wt. %. The liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. When PS and LDPE were mixed equally by weight at 570 °C, liquid product yield was found 85 wt. %. More PS adding in the feedstock did nearly not affect this value. It was detected that hydrocarbons which were aromatic, cyclic and aliphatic formed the peak areas’s majority of the co-pyrolytic liquid. Specifically styrene was found dominant component in that liquid. Besides that, it was observed that with increasing temperature, peak areas’ percentage of alkanes decreased while temperature rising didn’t affect olefines’ peak areas.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Cochin, the commercial and industrial centre of Kerala, lies on the south-west coast of Arabian sea. It covers an area of 94.88 Km2. There are two major dumpsites in the city, one at Brahmapuram and other at Kalamassery. The proper management of the waste has been a challenging task for the concerned authorities. One of the cost-effective combating ways is the use of microbes. A preliminary attempt was performed to quantify both the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the dumpsite soils and evaluated by using standard techniques. The soil samples from the study sites showed higher values for bacterial and fungal counts than the control soils. Some of the isolated species belonged to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella. As the findings reveal that the dumping site soils have wide microbial diversity which can be exploited for sustainable and eco-friendly bioremediation approach.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 17:03 to 17:06
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

This contribution describes the experience of the Province of Brescia, public body responsible for managing applications for landfill authorization, and its collaboration with the University of Brescia for the specific activity of risk analysis applied to landfills. After a reference to the current national legislation and a summary of the technical documents available for the topic (guidelines and instructions drawn up by technical bodies), the technical-preliminary approach applied by the Province of Brescia is outlined. This is complemented by a detailed description of the methodological approach followed for the evaluation of Risk Analysis documents and of the critical aspects that emerged within several administrative procedures. Finally, some issues on the topic of interest that emerged within a technical task force, involving Lombardy Region and its provinces, are introduced.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:30 to 11:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Alongside increasing use of single-use plastics, especially in developing countries is increasing mismanaged solid wastes. There is great need for economically viable processes such as pyrolysis that can convert waste to energy resource. Coconut husk, which is also an abundant waste in tropical countries is a good material for co-pyrolysis with single-use plastic, as both have high energy content. Thus, this study determines the potential of plastic laminates and coconut husk pyrolysis as feedstock for production of pyrolystic oil. It aimed to determine the effects of feedstock mixture composition (percent coconut husk: (32%, 42%, 51% coconut husk), process temperature (500oC, 600oC, 700oC) and particle sizes (1cm, 3cm, 5cm) on the percentage yield, gross calorific value and energy value of the output pyrolytic oil. Using RSM response optimizer, optimum oil yield is 32.5%, which is at feedstock of 50.42% coconut husk, 5-cm partcle size and 700oC. Feedstock of 32% coconit husk, 5-cm particle size and 700oC will give the highest HHV of 34.1142 MJ/Kg. Maximum energy of 6.0032 MJ will be obtained at feedstock of 51% coconut husk, 5-cm particle size and 700oC. ANOVA analysis showed that all the three parameters tested are significant factors affecting oil yield and energy yields. Temperature and percentage coconut husk have greater influences on yield, HHV and energy value than particle size.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 11:45 to 12:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Several tools are available for evaluating the environmental level and/or performance of waste management in an area using several benchmarking indicators, such as life cycle assessment, multi-criteria decision analysis, compositional analysis etc. Often these tools are the simplifications of the actual facts as the waste management systems are complex and difficult to generalise from case studies This research implement several benchmarking indicators such as compositional analysis of household waste, level of recycling index, participation in home composting, awareness activities, prevention activities in order to assess the level of the circular economy strategy in a Municipality (located in Cyprus). The results indicate that the more than 75% of the citizens are participated in the recycling door to door program. However, the recyclable waste that are been collected are not clear as include other impurities. For example, the impurities in PMD is more than 20% indicated that a door to door training program is needed. Also, the concentration of PMD and Papers in the household waste count more than 18% indicated that the waste sorting at source needs further attention. Home composting seems to be a promising method to treat leftovers and other yard wastes and minimized the volume of organic waste that are dumped in landfills.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Microporous 12-ring zeolite Beta was impregnated with palladium and evaluated in the cracking of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cracking. In addition to the catalytic measurements the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and nitrogen adsorption, electron microscopy, and FT infrared spectroscopic studies pyridine and CO adsorption. In addition to TGA catalytic studies, the operando IR studies were furthermore performed to follow the aromatic species formation. Deposition of palladium on microporous zeolite BEA improved the catalytic activity and selectivity towards C2-C4 fraction.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Improving mass transport in zeolites Beta by bottom-up hierarchization was aimed at preserving their native microporous acidic characteristic and finally demonstrating their applicability in LDPE catalytic pyrolysis, in contrast to top-down modified analogues.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Europe is the most visited region in the world, the destination for half (49.8%) of the 1.24 billion international tourist arrivals in 2016. Almost half (47.4%) of European tourist visits occurred in coastal regions, defined “on the basis of and consist of local administrative units or municipalities that border the sea, or have at least half of their total surface area within a distance of 10 km from the sea.” In 2015, 9 out of 10 nights spent at Tourist Accommodation Establishments (TAE) in Malta, Cyprus, Greece, Croatia and Denmark were located at coastal areas, while the overall flow of tourism in the EU is primarily concentrated on Mediterranean coastal regions. Within this research, the concept of urban metabolism will be used to understand and analyses how tourist areas that are influenced by tourism use their resources and how touristic activities are linked to waste management and resource conservation. Furthermore, a waste compositional technique has been performed in order to relate the waste production in coastal areas as well as the level of the pollution link to the sea and moreover to evaluate the existing infrastructure and waste management plan.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:30 to 13:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

This paper is focused on the utilization of Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as a substitute for natural aggregate. Concrete produced in this way is characterized by worse properties than standard concrete, mainly due to the properties of the RCA. One option is to modify the surface of the RCA and thereby to improve the properties of the concrete as a whole. By the method described in this paper, we have succeeded in reducing the total water absorption of concrete by 50%, while the compressive strengths on the tested cubes with the edge 100 mm were 55 MPa.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:57 to 17:00
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

This study is focused on a technologically viable approach to obtain zeolite Na-X by aging of lignite coal fly ash (FA) in alkaline solutions at ambient conditions resembling a quasi natural crystallization process. Reaction products were characterized for their phase composition by X-ray diffraction, morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface properties by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The effect of the crystallization time was investigated as an important parameter for the extent of zeolitization. The highest yield of zeolite Na-X was achieved by incubating FA in 1.5 mol/l NaOH for one year. However, significant crystallization extent is established after eight months of alkaline aging. Fly ash zeolites (FAZ) obtained by atmospheric crystallization have specific surface values up to 280 m2/gFAZ.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:45 to 16:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Nowadays, beneficial management of plastic and rubber waste from different sources and environmentally friendly ways of recycling is becoming an increasing challenge. A possible solution for that problem could be to produce plastic composites usually consisting of heterogeneous phases. That fact and the interface between phases, and characteristics of components all play important roles in development of properties of end-product. By using a compatibilizing additive a chemical bridge can be created between the plastic composite components requiring reactive functional groups. In case of carbon nanotube containing composites particular attention must be paid to the formation of suitable interactions between the dispersed material and the matrix that can be carried out by impregnating the surface of carbon nanotubes with dispersed additive in hydrocarbon solution or in aqueous surfactant containing composition. We have applied O/W typed emulsion techniques for carbon nanotube impregnation, bearing in mind the importance of environmental regulations for the conditions of treatment. Compatibilizing additives have been classified by various analytical measurements (total acid number, saponification value measurement, size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR measurements, adhesive strength, conditions of emulsification) to identify the possible structure of the additive and to study interactions with the reinforcing material.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:45 to 13:00
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

The article draws attention to the problem of the presence of selected metals in waste electrical, electronic equipment (WEEE). These metals belong to the group of critical metals (germanium), strategic metals (tellurium) and highly toxic elements (thallium). Due to low content of these metals in e-waste, they are usually ignored during e-waste analysis, therefore they belong to the least-known metals in the literature regarding waste recycling. Their presence in WEEE can cause them to be concentrated in the environment during improper e-waste processing. The article presents the applications of Ge, Te, Tl in electronic equipment, quantities identification of these metals in a variety of electronic equipment elements, paying special attention to the ability to accumulate/concentrate Ge, Te, Tl in individual fractions after the e-waste shredding and grinding process This research aims to determine possibility getting of these metals into the environment, during the storage and processing of e-waste (especially in the unit processes of disassembly, separation, shredding), in the case of uncontrolled electronic waste handling and disposal.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:54 to 16:57
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Over the past 50 years demand for plastics drastically increased worldwide resulting in plastic wastes causing serious environmental problems. The main market sector of european plastics industry is the packaging industry most of which is polyolefins and poly(ethythylene-terephtalate). Polymer blends based on waste resources can solve the issues of recycling. We have studied rheological and tensile properties of three types of PET/engineering thermoplastic blends (PET/PC, PET/PA and PET/ABS) produced with different processing techniques. Miscibility of components of blends is limited leading to weak mechanical properties such as low tensile strength and/or elongation at break. Due to that phenomenon compatibilizing additives are also required. As compatibilizing additives olefin-maleic-anhydride copolymer based additives have been used in our experiments. Structure of additives differed from each other both in ratio and length of carbon chains of compounds linked to maleic-anhydride groups . Blends have been studied with PET content ranging from 10 % to 90 %. As an outstanding result we have managed to achieve improving mechanical properties, for example almost 400 % growth was observed in elongation at break of extruded 80/20 PET/PA blends in the presence of 0.2 % compatibilizing additive compared to the sample without additive, meanwhile its strength has also improved.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:00 to 13:15
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

One of the most commonly used methods of recycling of spent zinc-carbon (alkaline) batteries is hydrometallurgical leaching with sulfuric acid. The technology is highly efficient and enables the recovery of the majority of deposited metals. Unfortunately, it also generates highly acidic wastewaters containing significant amounts of sulfates and metal ions, which have typically been considered off-balance material.
The aim of the study was to develop
a biotechnology for the recovery of metals (in the form of sulfides), based on the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB reduce sulfates to sulfides, which bind with metal ions to produce an insoluble precipitate. To maximize the efficiency of metal sulfide biorecovery by SRB, the acidic wastewaters were pretreated with sodium hydroxide and then with biogenic ammonia (produced by urea-degrading bacteria) to reach pH 5.0. Further alkalinity was generated during organic compound decomposition carried out by SRB in cultures containing appropriately diluted, pretreated leachates.
As a result of the proposed biotechnology, metal ions and sulfates, were almost completely removed from the leachate. This way new raw materials: metal sulfides and treated (industrial-quality) water with circumneutral pH were produced.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:48 to 13:51
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

This paper investigates the recovery of the main metals (La and Al) present in a spent fluid cracking catalyst (FCC) through the hydrometallurgical processes of leaching and selective precipitation. Complete La leaching (99±1)% was achieved under microwave-assisted leaching with the use of 1 M HCl and a liquid-solid (L/S) ratio of 5 for 90 s. Since the main impurity presented in the leachate was Al, an initial process was developed to selectively recover Al by alkaline precipitation. At pH 6, almost total Al (98%) was precipitated with purity of 88.7% while La co-precipitation was insignificant (2.8%). The second approach consisted of La recovery as lanthanum oxalate [La2(C2O4)3], using low oxalic acid concentration (0.1 M). The results indicate high La recovery (99.7%) with very high purity (99.9%) when applied on the solution pre-purified and free of Al. Results strongly demonstrated that the simple and universal approach created is beneficial in terms of high metals recovery and final product quality from spent FCC without the need of highly concentrated chemicals and time-consuming processes.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:45 to 13:48
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Recycling of post-consumer packaging wastes involves a complex chain of activities, usually based on three main stages, that is: i) collection from households or recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW), ii) sorting and, finally, iii) mechanical recycling. This paper investigates sorting logics, hyperspectral imaging based, to design, implement and set up with the specific aim to perform an automatic separation of paper, cardboard, plastics and multilayer packaging.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 13:15 to 13:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

A method aiming at improving source-separation performance of household food waste (FW) was investigated in two areas with different socio-economic characteristics in Lübeck, Germany. This included the test of a new FW collection system including the distribution of small collection buckets to each household. In addition, an information event was organized and households were provided with information material including a waste sorting guide. The study also aimed at assessing the FW avoidance potential. A method for waste composition analysis for FW from households was applied for the assessment. Both areas showed an increase of the source-separation of FW from 17.4% to 60.3% (A, socio-economic low area) and from 16.6% to 65.7% (B, socio-economic medium area) respectively. Compared to the waste composition in the bio-waste (BW) bin prior the investigation, macro-impurities (including paper waste) reduced from around 6.1% to 0.6% (A) and from 13.6% to 1.2% (B). In this respect, the investigated collection system showed a significant improvement to the regular waste collection system.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:30 to 15:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Nowadays polyethylene is one of the polymers produced in the greatest volume, therefore, parallelly the amount of generated waste polyethylene (w-HDPE) significant as well. Valorisation and recycling of w-HDPE can be realized by blending with different types of polymers and/or elastomers in order to result in thermoplastic elastomer end-product for example. One potential candidate can be ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) nevertheless interfacial interaction between w-HDPE and EVA is inadequate reflected in deterioration of mechanical properties of the blend in spite of the fact that they possess favourable mechanical properties themselves and they may complement each other. For the purpose of boosting of interfacial interactions between these two polymers experimental olefin-maleic-anhydride based additives have been incorporated in the blends after optimization of the processing temperature. Impact and tensile tests have been carried out in our research work besides microscopy measurements and investigation of the effects of additive structure by FT-IR and rheology.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:30 to 16:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Reliable data on Municipal Solid Waste composition are paramount for the development of environmentally sound, sustainable and economically viable integrated waste management systems. However, no standardized universally accepted waste characterization protocol has been developed, as there are various methodologies described in the relevant literature (Edjabou et al., 2015). In the present study, a generic and easy-to-apply waste sampling and sorting approach is developed and presented. The area of interest of the characterization was the Municipality of Halandri in Attica, Greece. The MSW composition characterization was necessary for the development of an innovative waste management strategy in the Municipality (WASTE4Think, 2015). Five suitable waste collection points were identified as sampling points. In each sampling point three collection bins were located (commingled waste in green bins, recyclables in blue bins and paper & cardboard in yellow bins). The sampling points were selected in residential areas (no shops, companies etc. around). For a week - seven consecutive days - the content of the bins was collected and transported to a sorting facility, where bins’ material was sorted into 40 fractions and weighted. The results indicated a recycling rate up to 75% and a level of impurities in the recycling bins (blue and yellow) no more than 12%.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

The treatment and processing of coffee annually produces a large volume of biological waste, which contributes to environmental pollution, it is estimated that coffee production generates approx. 6 million tonnes of spent coffee grounds per year in the world (GETACHEW and CHUN, 2017). Thus, the sludge becomes a residue equivalent to approximately 50% of the roasted coffee in the soluble coffee industry (PUJOL D. et al. 2013). The major problem of the discharge of spent ground coffee in the environment is the presence of caffeine and phenolic compounds when in concentration above 2.5% due to toxicity to plants and soil microorganisms. Therefore, this project proposed to extract the oil from the coffee grounds using the ultrasound method as a pre-extraction method to the soxlet extractor, aiming at eliminating the environmental contamination of the residue and at the same time adding value through the study of the oil for use in cosmetics due to the high amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidants. The results showed that the application of the ultrasound as a pre-extractive method during 30 min allowed to increase the oil quantity by 70% in relation to the use of the soxlet extractor only, maintaining the quality of the composition.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:51 to 16:54
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

In this paper a European Union and National funded project activities are described. The project “BIOWASTE” promotes the transfer and application test of innovative technologies (PAYT and ACUs), aiming to enhance managing efficiency in solid wastes related issues, such as source separation schemes and treating systems emphasizing in organic wastes. The proposed systems will be introduced in three different types of touristic municipalities, Municipality of Yermasoyia (intensified touristic area with prolonged touristic summer), Municipality of Katerini (less intensive touristic area, with short summer period directly related with the sea cost) and Municipality of Probistip (less intensive touristic area with a very large number of small and decentralized communities with significant number of tourists). Ιn the framework of the BIOWASTE, each municipality will: a) develop a detailed Pay as You throw (PAYT) system, b) provide the appropriate equipment for the implementation of the PAYT system (weighing units for waste collection trucks, bins with identification systems), and c) install an Autonomous Composting Unit (ACU) at the sites of a hotel or hospitality units or decentralized communities to receive the bio-waste produced directly without the need to collect them. ACUs are small closed integrated composting units, with zeroing of effluent and expanding liquids.

Session: 12, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Food waste or leftovers generated by various raw or processed food materials that are not consumed but instead are usually disposed to waste landfills are regarded as a global issue which impacts human health and environmental sustainability. An enormous pressure in disposing of food wastes in landfill sites already exists and is predicted to be increased during the forthcoming years whereas simultaneously various environmental problems associated with solid wastes have to be solved. On the other hand, a percentage higher than 60% of the operational costs of any modern aquaculture industry concerns the supplies of protein-enriched- aquafeeds which among other characteristics are commercially manufactured sources of additional healthy nutritious and digestible proteins that tend to be expensive. Recent research and published data evaluating the use of recycled food wastes as a partial replacement of fishmeal-based feeds in diets of several species suggest that this can be considered as a more sustainable and environmentally friendly practice.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:48 to 16:51
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Today the quality of compost is the most essential criterion in recycling organic wastes, as well as its marketing and utilization in agriculture. Environmentally safe recycling of organic waste to agricultural land could be crucial to sustaining soil productivity in Mediterranean areas, where soil organic matter content is very low. The present study discusses variations in some quality parameters of compost produced using various organic combinations. Over a period of 120 days, special attention was given to monitoring compost quality parameters, including: temperature, dry matter, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), microbial counts, organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC), NH4, NO3, C:N ratio, macronutrients (NPK), and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu). The results revealed that almost all of the investigated parameters showed remarkable changes during compost formation. Agricultural wastes in the presence 10% poultry manure was comparatively of superior quality in terms of the availability of macro and micronutrients as well as microbial activity. However, agricultural wastes with 10% mixture of sheep and camel manure was found to be superior in terms of OM, OC, C:N ratio and yielded the highest bacterial counts. Compost quality depended on the base materials used, the duration and conditions of decomposition.

Session: 6, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 10:30 to 10:45
Oral presentation in Solid waste management

Several residues and carbohydrate-rich effluents have been studied as a possible alternative in the substitution or implementation of the traditional cultivation medium of xanthan gum, helping in the management of these residues and, consequently, reducing fermentation costs. This work studied the extract obtained from potato peels for xanthan gum production by fermentation with or not sucrose supplementation. Xanthan gum yield ranged between 2-4 g L-1, and a linear relationship between the amount of added sucrose and gum produced was observed. In addition, the peak of gum production with higher viscosity was able to be anticipated with the sucrose supplementation, from 72 to 24 h (with the 5% of sucrose in comparison with the control condition). The maximum viscosity was 950 mPa.s, a result higher than many published papers that use residues as culture medium for xanthan production.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 16:45 to 16:48
Flash presentation in Solid waste management

Bottom ash (BA) is the dominant residue from municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel incineration. Disposal costs chiefly depend on the leachability of trace metals and salts. The mobility of these constituents is classically minimized by ageing for several months. Ageing involves the oxidation of metals, dissolution and precipitation reactions, and most importantly, car-bonation of BA induced by the uptake of carbon dioxide. Enhanced exposure to carbon dioxide sources has been referred to as accelerated carbonation. Here we report on the successful implementation of the accelerated carbonation of BA in a continuous pilot-scale rotating drum reactor supplied with the exhaust gas of a cogeneration plant. The system was tested in 20 field trials that aimed at stabilizing the ash such as to comply with the regulatory standards for disposal on a lower landfill class or for its geotechnical re-use. Performance and process efficiency were addressed by maximizing the reactor loading and minimizing the BA residence time. While leachates of the fresh BA ash were indicative of a hazardous waste pertaining to a class III landfill, the carbonated material fulfilled the regulatory standards for a class I landfill and, in addition, complied with the standards for geotechnical re-use. In the field trials bottom ash residence times could be cut to 60 minutes thus allowing for an on-line integration of the process.

Session: 18, Room: F, at Thu, 09/05/2019 - 15:15 to 15:30
Oral presentation in Solid waste management