Energy technologies and sustainability

[CEST2019_00857] Mass and energy balances of sewage sludge pyrolysis in a lab rotary kiln
by Mendoza L., Gómez A., Rincón S.

The aim of this work is to study the influence of the main parameters of sewage pyrolysis in a rotary kiln on the product distriburion and energy balances. An indirectly heated rotary kiln at a laboratory scale was used (4 kg/h). An increase in the final temperature causes the reduction of the total condensable products and the non-condensable gas fraction increases. The residence time of the volatile phase has an important influence on the secondary reactions to increase the non-condensable gas with low tars content. These results contribute also a valuable input to perform LCA.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:00 to 10:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00716] Thermal-physical properties of agricultural residues for syn gas production using thermo-gravimetric analysis
by Kumar P., Subbarao P.M.V., Kala L.D., Vijay V.K.

The thermal degradation behaviour and activation energy of biomass can be utilized to know the behaviour and constituent of biomass degradation rate prior to gasification. Suitability of biomass for gasification and power generation was prejudged by its thermo-physical properties. The present study was to explore the thermo-chemical behaviour of agricultural waste biomass for gasification were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis method. Two methods was adopted for evaluating the apparent activation energies of agriculture residue i.e. The Kissinger Akahira Sunose (KAS), The Flynn-wall-ozawa (FWO) methods. The results showed that corncob was sensitive to heat and it has the lowest lignin content and activation energy, therefore, it is best suited for feedstock in pallet form for gasifier engine system for producer gas generation in a remote area like village and hill station.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:30 to 12:45
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00721] Numerical simulation of CO2-brine-rock interactions on CO2 sequestration in Shihezi Formation of Ordos Basin in China
by Liu B., Li Z., Fu X.,Lv Y.

Geochemical reactions play an important role in CO2 geological storage environments. CO2-brine-rock interactions will be enhanced in low pH environment, because of acidity in reservoir being strengthened due to CO2 dissolution. TOUGHREACT is used conduct kinetic batch modeling and reactive transport modeling in Shihezi formation in Ordos basin, where the first CCS project is carried out in China. Simulations are based on the core data, which are focused on effects of CO2 for pH, gas saturation, geochemical interactions, porosity and permeability in formation. Results show thath K-feldspar and albite, main components of alkaline feldspar, are dissolved, while ankerite and siderite are precipitated. Quartz, calcite and dawsonite are dissolved first and then precipitated, whose reaction mechanisms are associated with environment pH value, temperature and electrolyte existing. These results are consistent with observations in laboratory experiments. For CO2 squestration, whether minerals are dissolved and precipitated, amount of CO2 will be consumed, which will promote CO2 dissolution in formation resulting in CO2 sequestrated underground. These processes may be very slow, but dissolved and mineralized deposits are ideal CO2 storage.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:21 to 13:24
Flash presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00655] Durability of cement mortars and concretes exposed to biological attack as one of the sustainability parameter – a correlation analysis
by Ondrejka Harbulakova V., Estokova A., Smolakova M., Luptakova A.

Among the pillars of the sustainability, the aspect of prolongation of life of constructions has to be involved. Focus on sustainability leads to study of durability of building materials. Phenomenon called bio-corrosion can result in structure deterioration. Special attention is paid to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfuric acid by bacteria community established on a concrete surface. The type of the binder and composition of aggregate is a very important factor for investigation of the bio-corrosion processes of concrete. In this paper, a comparison of deleterious processes proceeded in cement composites exposed to bacterial influence was investigated. Concentrations of dissolved ions (Ca, Si) in leachate (as an indicator of bio-corrosion) after 270-day exposure to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were measured every 7 days during the experiment. The samples of cement mortars and concrete composites were compared. The correlation analysis was confirmed to be a useful tool to help the interpretation of the experimental findings.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:18 to 13:21
Flash presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00609] Nitrogen co-doped with fluorine on reduced graphene oxide for enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability for ORR in alkaline fuel cells
by Musico Y.L.F., Labata M.F.M., Chuang P.-Y. A., Ocon J.D.

Nitrogen co-doped with fluorine on reduced graphene oxide (N-F-rGO) was prepared by one-pot hydrothermal treatment method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) spectra revealed the successful doping of nitrogen and fluorine into the rGO. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results demonstrated high surface area of N-F-rGO that are favorable for O2 adsorption. The results show that N-F-rGO catalyst has improved the catalytic performance electrode for the ORR in alkaline environment than the fluorine undoped N-rGO. The Koutechy-Levich (KL) analysis and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements suggest that N-F-rGO dominantly favors a 4e- reduction process. The nitrogen co-doped with fluorine on rGO exhibited remarkable long-term stability towards the ORR than Pt/C. These improved electrochemical properties indicate that N-F-rGO will be promising candidates for cost-effective electrode materials for application of non-polluting alternative energy sources.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:00 to 13:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00513] Clean Electro-Mobility Solutions only using Green Energy Input
by Kaldellis J.K., Spyropoulos G., Kondili E.M., Triantafyllou A.G.

The utilization of electric vehicles (EVs) is considered as the new tool against the serious problems resulting from the oil products consumption in the transportation sector. In this context, the current work first estimates the real world electricity consumption of commercial EVs, including charging and discharging losses, using long term experimental measurements. Accordingly, on the basis of the total electricity consumption and using the electricity generation fuel mix (mainland vs. remote islands), the corresponding air pollutants are predicted. On the other hand, one may estimate the air pollutants’ emissions of contemporary EVs using experimental measurements and data provided by the EV manufacturers and other external accreditation bodies. According to the results obtained one should point out that current EVs may surcharge the environment with a higher volume of pollutants than the corresponding ICE-based ones, especially when coal-based and oil-based electricity is used to charge the batteries of the EV. On the other hand, if using renewable energy sources to charge the batteries of EVs, it is evident that the environmental impact of EVs -due to air pollution- is minimal.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:15 to 12:30
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00421] Catalytic Pyrolysis of Plum Seed
by Pehlivan E.

In this study, pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of the plum seed was investigated. For this purpose, the characteristics of the raw materials were determined by proximate analysis (moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon), structural analysis (holocellulose, hemicellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, oil, protein and extractive material) and ultimate analysis .The pyrolytic behavior of the feedstocks was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Then pyrolysis temperature, which is a significant pyrolysis parameter, investigated the effect of heating rate on pyrolysis product yields. When the pyrolysis temperature is 550°C, the nitrogen flow rate is 100 cm3/min and the heating rate is 100°C/min, the highest liquid product yield is achieved. In order to improve the quality of the liquid product obtained as the next process, catalytic pyrolysis of the raw material in optimum conditions is carried out. Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were carried out by adding 10% of Purmol CTX-1 catalyst to the raw material. Liquid products are characterized with spectroscopic and chromatographic methods such as GC-MS, FT-IR, 1H-NMR

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:00 to 12:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00353] Improving aquaculture environmental footprint utilizing offshore renewable energy
by Lilas T., Antoniou E., Kotrikla A., Vatistas A., Dagkinis I.

The main environmental impacts of aquaculture include eutrophication, chemical pollution and harm to sensitive marine ecosystems. At the same time, the required energy leads to high emissions of greenhouse gases. Offshore wind turbines are a sector of renewable energy that grows rapidly. Offshore wind turbines can be combined with aquaculture units to meet their energy needs, saving fuel and reducing their carbon footprint. However, there are many difficulties in installing aquaculture units in existing offshore wind parks (e.g. small water depth). A new paradigm is to deploy floating wind turbines and aquaculture at open sea. Open sea aquaculture is more environmentally friendly, but has not been developed due to increased supply chain cost and harsh sea state conditions. The aim of this study is to propose a renewable energy system that can cover the energy needs of an open sea aquaculture unit. The system consists of a multiuse floating structure that accommodates wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, batteries, energy management system, fish monitoring devices and automatic feeding system. In this way the frequency and cost of in-situ visits, will be reduced. The above combination makes open sea aquaculture development more attractive and at the same time improves its environmental footprint.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 10:15 to 10:30
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00224] Production of activated carbon from oil palm shells via physical activation with H2O and its characterization for use in aqueous phase
by Alvarez-Villanueva D.M., Rincon Prat S.L.

Oil palm shells (OPS) are a solid residue of the extraction of palm oil having excellent characteristics for production of activated carbon. OPS worldwide production amounts to 17.214 ton (2018) from which Colombia participates with 364 ton. Oil palm shells were first carbonized in a horizontal oven under N2 atmosphere until 850 °C for 30 min. Carbonized samples were than submitted to physical activation with steam in the same horizontal oven. A variation of process parameters was performed. Activation temperatures of 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C were studied. Residence time varied between 60 and 400 minutes. H2O flow rates between 1 a 5 ml / min were used. 50 g of carbonized oil palm shells were used for each experiment. The influence of the process conditions on pH, soluble water content, extractable acid content, methylene blue index, BET surface area from N2 adsorption and density were determined. Visual inspection through scanning electron microscopy and determination of surface functional groups through infrared spectroscopy were performed. The obtained activated carbons show suitable characteristics for its use in aqueous phase. Results obtained were useful to determine its optimal production conditions.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:45 to 10:00
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00200] Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity production in the Czech Republic – case-study of lignite combustion and hydropower
by Štefanica J., Zakuciová K., Kočí V., Šerešová M., Vlček Z., Vitvarová M., Opatřil J.

Environmental impacts of various types of energy production are compared in the scope of an ongoing national research project “Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Production”. The project is using the LCA method to compare the potential environmental impacts of selected energy sources throughout their whole life cycle. The energy sources are representative for the energy grid of the Czech Republic. The inventory data used for the LCA are based on case studies of selected Czech power plants. Presented article is showing the preliminary results – the comparison of environmental impacts of two electricity sources. Lignite power plant and a hydroelectric power plant are compared. Only the impacts of plant operation are compared so far, the construction and decommissioning are not included in the current analysis.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:30 to 09:45
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00205] Saltwater a viable source of Energy for Sustainable Rural Development
by El Morabet R., Khan R.A., Khan A.R., Almesfer M.

Energy is the base for development in present time. A sustainable renewable energy source is needed to overcome the requirement of special conditions and infrastructure for the development of rural areas. Saltwater is available in abundance and energy can be harnessed directly with ease. The study analysed saltwater energy potential of three salt companies by varying salt concentration at the rate of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 10 %. The company with higher energy potential was further analyzed at increased concentration of 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The sustainability of the energy was determined in terms of carbon emission as compared to kerosene lamp widely used in rural areas as a fuel. The energy potential of saltwater energy is low but can be successfully used in rural areas for lightning purpose. The concluded that saltwater energy

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 12:45 to 13:00
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00170] One Step Industrial Enzymatic Technology of Starch Hydrolysis to Glucose
by Kvesitadze G., Khvedelidze R., Urushadze T., Kutateladze L., Zakariashvili N., Jobava M., Sadunishvili T.

Starch degrading enzymes like amylase have received great attention because of their technological significance and economic benefits. As a result of screening of Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology collection of mycelial fungi, accounting 2500 individual strains, 39 strains poducing amylases have been revealed. Three promising enzyme producer strains of genus Aspergillus have been selected and technical preparations of their amylases obtained. The hydrolysis process of starch of different concentrations with the technical preparationof Aspergillus niger p8-3 at 680С was studied. 94- 96 % yield of glucose was reached at incubation of 30% and 40% starch with technical preparations of fungal enzymes during 8 hours.

Session: 29, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 13:15 to 13:18
Flash presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00034] Long Term Solids Handling Alternatives for New York City Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs)
by Halim D., Ramalingam K., Fillos J., Katehis D., Orpianesi M.

New York City Department of Environmental Protection, (DEP), owns and operates 14 water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) which treat a combined average dry weather flow of 57 m3/sec. DEP in association with the City College of New York, (CCNY), has embarked on a long term project to assess thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of the combined sludge to enhance production of anaerobic digester gas, (ADG), and take advantages of improve reduction of volatile solids and sludge dewatering. This paper will focus on the initial phases of thermal hydrolysis.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:15 to 09:30
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability
[CEST2019_00022] Hydrogen production from cotton wastes by mean of dark fermentation
by Sołowski G., Konkol I., Shalaby M., Cenian A.

Dark fermentation of textile wastes is discussed in the paper. In the experiment were used cotton wastes. Before fermentation the cotton was hydrolyzed using 0.1 M of HCl. The inoculum was pretreated using heat shocked for 0.5 h at temperature of 105°C. The fermentation was carried out under conditions: load 5 g/l, pH in the range 5 by 0.1 M of HCl, and oxygen in small quantities was added. The oxygen flow rates (OFR) was 0.008 ml/h. The fermentation was carried out at temperature of 40 °C for one day. In reactors with pretreated inoculum (pH 5) biogas was detected and its content (hydrogen carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) were determined. Methane was not produced during experiment. The volume of hydrogen for process performed at temperature 40°C 0.168 dm3 of at biogas content 43%.

Session: 23, Room: E, at Fri, 09/06/2019 - 09:00 to 09:15
Oral presentation in Energy technologies and sustainability